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Apology (Defense of Socrates) 

An Interlinear Translation with English and Ancient Greek 

Juan F Balboa, translator 

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license 

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Front cover image: photograph of painting, Apollo in his Chariot, by Luca Giordano (1634-1705), circa 
1685. Oil on Canvas. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 

For its use in this document, the photo was downloaded on 6 January 2020 from 
_Apollo_in_his_Chariot_-_47.1566_-_Museum_of_Fine_Arts.j pg 

Original Source: 

It is in the Public Domain. 




[The Disposition , Ethical Character] 

Socrates: 1 On the one hand , in what way , O gentlemen of Athens , Thou have been affected 
17A psv O xv ,(o avSpsq AOpvavov, opsvq nsnovOsaxs 

by my accusers , 1 do not know ; while I, on the other hand , and because of selves , Self 
U7 to spcov xcov Kaxpyopcov , ooK ovSa : ouv syco 8’ kou utc’ aoxcov aoxoq 
was almost made to forget Myself, so persuasively did they speak . And yet there was indeed 
oMyoo sns^aboppv spaoxoo , ouxeo 7xv0avcoc; s^syov . kouxoi ys 

not one Word/Logos spoken that is True . But I was especially amazed by one , of the many 
ooSsv £7io<; suvsv coc; a^pOeq , 8e paMaxa co0aopaaa ev xcov 7toAAcov 
lies which selves told ; namely this one , in which they said that Thou must be on guard , 
eov aoxcov s\|/soaavxo , xooxo , sv eo s^syov coq opaq ypp so^aPsvabav, 
not to be deceived by Myself, because I was a “clever/dangerous/devious/fearful speaker”, 
pp s£,a7raxp9pxs on’ spoo , coq ovxoq Sevvoo ^sysvv . 

17B Since by the very fact that they are not ashamed , that they will be immediately refuted by 
yap xo epyco pr| ava/ovbpvav oxi aoxuca s£,s^syx0paovxav ore’ 

Myself, when I show myself not to be in the very least, a “skilful speaker” . This appeared to me 
spoo , 87xeiSav ijvavvcopav ppS’ otccogxvoov Ssvvoq Jesysvv , xooxo sSo£,sv poi 
to be the most shameless aspect of selves , unless they thus call that very one “a fearful speaker” 
svvav avaiaxovxoxaxov aoxcov sv pp apa Ka^ooavv ooxoi Ssvvov ^sysvv 
the one who speaks The Truth ; for if on the one hand , this is what they mean , then I would 
xov ^syovxa xaM|9p : yap ev psv xooxo ^syooavv , av 

agree that 1 am indeed an Orator , but not on the other hand , according to their kind . 
opo^oyovpv sycoys ppxcop oo veaxa xooxouq. 

Thus , these men on the one hand , as I say , have either said little or nothing that is True ; but 
oov ooxov psv , cocxTcsp syco ^syco , p svppKaavv xv p ooSsv a^pbsq : 

on the other hand , Thou shall hear nothing but The Truth from Myself. However O gentlemen 
8’ opsvq aKooasG0s maav xpv aCpbsvav spoo . psvxov eo avSpsq 

of Athens , by Zeus , not with Logos finely decked out with phrases and names , nor carefully 
Abpvavov, pa Ava oo ^oyooq ys KSKa^A,vs7tppsvooc; pppaav xs Kav ovopaavv, ooSs kskog- 
17C embellished like theirs , but Thou will hear those names spoken that occur to me sponta- 
pppsvooq eoGTUsp ov xooxeov , oXka aKooasabs xovq ovopaavv ^syopsva stuxo/oogw 
-neously , for 1 Trust that What I Say is Just ; and let none of Thyselves expect otherwise . 

svKp , yap 7UGXSOCO a ^syco svvav Svvcava , Kav ppSsvq opcov TtpoaSoKpaaxco aATuoc;: 

For without a doubt neither would it be Proper , O men, for one of my age to come before Thee 
yap Spnoo ooSs av 7tps7rov , eo avSpsq , xpSs xp piUKa svavsvav svq opaq 
like a youngster making up Logos’ . And to be sure , O gentlemen of Athens , this 1 urgently 
coa7isp psvpaKvco 7xi^axxovxv ^oyooc;. Kav psvxov, eo avSpsc; A0pvavov, xooxo 7iavo 


beg and beseech of Thee , that if Thou hear me making my defense in the same way which I have 
Ssopai kou mpispai oprov : sav aKoopxs poo arco^oyoupsvou Sia xcov aoxrov Si’ rov7xsp 
been accustomed to speak both in the market place at tables of money-changers , where many of 
siroGa ^sysiv kou sv ayopa S7xi xcov xpans^cov , iva 7xoAAoi 

Thee have heard me and elsewhere , do not be surprised or to make a disturbance because of this . 
upcov aKpKoaai, kou aMioGi, ppxs Gaopa^siv ppxs GopoPsiv svsKa xooxoo . 
17D For the fact is , that now is the first time I have come up before the court, although 1 am 
yap ooxroai s/ev, vov upcoxov syeo avaPsPpKa S7xi SiKaaxppiov , exp 
seventy years old ; therefore , 1 am simply a foreigner to the manner of speech herein . Therefore 
spSoppKovxa ysyovroc; : oov s/ro axs/vroc; £,svroc; xpc; ^s£,roc; svGaSs . oov 
just as if I really happened to be a foreigner , Thou would of course allow it to me , if 1 spoke 
roansp av si xco ovxv sxoy/avov cov c;svoc; , av c;ovsyiyvroaKsxs Spnoo poi sv s^syov 
18A in that dialect and that way , in which I had been brought up , so now , surely then I also 
sv xp SKsvvp (poovp xs Kav xro xpoix® , sv ovcnxsp sxsGpapppv , Kav vov 8p Kav 
request this of Thee ; a Just one , as it truly appears to me , that if on the one hand , Thou would 
Ssopai xooxo op®v SiKaiov , roc; ys Sok® pov, sav psv 
allow me , my way of speaking in the same way ; for it might be worse , but perhaps Better . 

xov xpo7xov xpc; ?is£,s®q igcoc; , yap psv av sip /svprov , 8s laroc; PsJixirov : 
Pay Attention then , and Offer-up The Mind to This Self, if This that 1 Say , is Just , or not; 

GK07TSW 8s Kav 7xpoasxsiv xov voov xoox® aoxo , sv xooxo ^syro SiKava p pp 
for on the one hand , Self is The Excellence of The Judge , while on the other hand The Virtue 
yap psv aoxp apsxp SiKaaxoo , 8s 

of The Orator is to speak The Truth . 
ppxopoq ^sysvv xa^pGp . 

2 Therefore , first of all, on the one hand , it is Just for me to defend myself, O Athenian men , 
oov rip®xov psv SiKavoq svpv a7xo^oypaaa0ai, ro AGpvaioi avSpsq , 
against the first false accusations , and those first accusers of mine , and then on the other hand , 
rcpoq xa rcproxa \|/so8p Kaxpyopppsva Kav xooq 7tproxooc; Kaxpyopooq poo , S7xsvxa 8s 
18B against the later accusations and the later accusers . For many accusers have risen up against 
npoq xa oaxspa Kav xooq oaxspooq . yap rcoMiov Kaxpyopoi ysyovaai repot; 

Myself before Thee , and have already for many long years , said nothing that is True ; and 
spoo opaq Kav pSp nokka na^av sxp ^syovxsc; ooSsv a^pGsc;, Kav 

which I fear more than Anytos and the rest, even though these are also dangerous ; 
ooq syro ())oPoopav paMiov p Avoxov root; apijn , Kavnesp xooxooc; ovxaq Kav Ssvvooc; 
but those others are more dangerous , O gentlemen , those who took hold of most of Thyselves 
aXX’ sksivov Ssvvoxspov , ro avSpsc;, ov mpaJaxpPavovxsc; root; noX'kovq oprov 

to persuade Thee , when Thou were children , and accused me without any Truth , saying that, 
S7xsi0ov sk mvSrov xs Kav Kaxpyopouv spoo ouSsv aVpGsc; , rot; 

“There is a certain wise guy , Socrates , who thinks about and investigates everything in Heaven 
sari xvq ao())ot; avpp , IroKpaxpt;, (jipovxvaxpc; xs avst^pxpKroc; xa anavxa psxsropa 
and of those under the Earth and who makes the weaker argument/Logos the stronger 
Kai xa 07X0 ype; Kav novrov xov pxxro Jxoyov Kpsvxxro. 

18C These very same people , O gentlemen of Athens , who have broadcast this report, are my 
ooxov xaoxpv ov, ro avSpsc; AGpvavoi , ov KaxaaKsSaaavxst; xpv ijipppv , svavv poo 
terribly-dangerous accusers . For those who hear them , are lead to believe that those who 
Ssvvoi Kaxpyopoi : yap oi aKooovxst; pyoovxav xooq 

investigate these matters do not believe in The Gods . Then since , these very accusers are many , 
^pxoovxsq xaoxa ooSs vopv^svv Gsooc;. snsixa ooxov ov Kaxpyopoi svavv 7xoAAov 


and have already been making their accusations for a long time , and since they spoke to Thee 
kou r|Sr| KaxpyoppKoxsq noXw xpovov kou 8s ^syovxsq npoq opaq 

while still in that age , in which Thou woidd Trust them most; when Thou were children , 
sxx xaoxp xp p?aKia , sv p av s7uaxsoaaxs paiUaxa , ovxsq mxSsq, 

while most of Thee were mere babes , while accusing me in a way devoid of any rules , since 
8’ svxox opcov kou psipouaa, Kaxpyopoovxsq eppppv axs^vcoq 

there was nobody to give a defense . But that which is most unreasonable of all, is that it is not 
ooSsvoq ano^oyoopsvoo. 8s o a^oycoxaxov navrcov, oxx ouSs 

18D even possible to know and speak the names of selves , except if one of them happens to be 
oxov sxSsvax xs kou suxsxv xa ovopaxa aoxeov , 7xX,pv sx xxq xoyxavsx cov 
a writer of comedies . Thus all those who persuaded Thee did so by means of ill-will and slander , 
KcopcoSxorcoxoq : 8s oooi avsnevOov opaq xpcopsvox (|)9 ove > Koa SxaPoA,p 
but some also persuaded others , since selves had been persuaded ; all these , are most difficult 
8s ox kou 7xsx0ovxsq a^ooq aoxox 7is7xexapsvoi , reavxcov ooxox sxaxv ano- 

to deal with ; for it is not even possible to call selves up here nor question them any of them . 
pcoxaxoi : yap saxxv ooSs oxov x’ aoxeov avaPxPaaaabax svxao0ox ooS’ s^s£,ai ooSsva , 
Thus I must necessarily , make my defense against , as it were , unreasonably , with shadows 
aXX’ avayKp ano^oyoopsvov eoansp axs^veoq GKiapa/sxv 

and furthermore to question when no one will answer . Therefore also bear this in Thine mind , 
xs Kai s^syxsiv ppSsvoq a7ioKpxvopsvoo. oov Kax a^xcoaaxs opsxq 
18E just as 1 say , that there are two classes of my accusers ; on the one hand , those whom 1 
ooGTtsp eyco ^syeo , ysyovsvax Sxxxooq poo xooq Kaxpyopooq , psv xooq sxspooq ooq syeo 
say , are accusing me just now , and on the other hand , those others who accused me long ago , 
^syeo, Kaxpyoppaavxsq apxx, Se xooq sxspooq 7xa^ax , 

and consider that I must defend myself first against the latter ; for Thou heard them making 
Kax oip0pxs Seiv aTto^oypaaabai ps npeoxov 7tpoq SKsxvooq , yap opsxq pKooaaxs SKsxveov 
their charges first and with much greater force than these who made them later . Very well; 
Kaxpyopoovxcosv npoxepov Kax no'kv pa^ov p xeovSs xcov oaxepov . sxev : 

19A I must make a defense , O gentlemen of Athens , and indeed , I must try , in so short a time , 
ano^oypxsov , co avSpsq A0pvaioi, Kax Sp s7uxeippxeov ev ooxeoq o^xyco xpovco 
to remove from Thee , this slander , which Thou have been acquiring , for so long a time . Thus 
scqs^sa0ax opsxq , xaoxpv xpv SxaPoVpv , pv sa/sxs ev 7ro^A,eo xpovco • oov 

on the one hand , I wish that this might turn out in such a way , that is somehow Better for Thee 
psv Poo^oxppv xooxo av ysvsabax ooxeoq , sx xx apsxvov Kax opxv 
and for me , and that I might have some success with my defense ; but I think Self is difficult, 
Kax spox, Kax 7xoipaai xx nhsov ps ano^oyoopsvov : 8s oxpax aoxo sxvax xaVsnov , 
and it has not at all escaped my notice what a task Self is . Similarly on the one hand , let this 
Kax oi) navv taxvbavsi ps oxov saxxv. opeoq psv xxeo xooxo 

be as it is Dear to The God , for The Law must be obeyed and I must make my defense . 
onp <|nA,ov xco 0sco, 8s xco vopco nsiaxsov Kax ano^oypxsov. 

3 Therefore let us take up from the beginning , what the accusation is , from which 

oov AvataxPcopsv s£, apxpq , xxq p Kaxpyopxa saxxv , s£, pq 
the slander against me has arisen , and in which Meletus certainly Trusted , when he brought this 
p SiaPoVp spp ysyovsv, Kax p Ms^pxoq Sp niaxsocov sypa\|/axo xaoxpv 
19B suit against me . Very well. What did those slanderers indeed say who slandered me ? 
xpv ypaijxpv ps . sxsv . xx ox SxaPa^ovxsq Sp ^syovxsq SxsPa?Jeov ; 
Therefore I must read the sworn accusation of selves , as if they were plaintiffs/accusers : 
oov Ssi avayveovax xpv avxeopoaxav aoxeov coansp Kaxpyopcov , 


“Socrates is unjust and a meddling-busybody , who searches out both things under the earth and 
XcoKpaxpq aSvKev kou 7xepvepya^£xav , £p|xcov is xa o no ypq Kav 
in heaven and makes the weaker Logos stronger and teaches others the very same things 
oopavva Kav novcov xov pxxco Xoyov Kpevxxco Kav SvSaoKcov aMiooq xa xaoxa aoxa. 

19C It is something of that sort; for this is also the very thing you saw in the comedy of 
eaxvv xvq xovaoxp : yap xauxa Kav auxov scopaxs ev xr| KcopcoSva 
Aristophanes ; a certain Socrates being carried about there , both proclaiming that he was “air- 
Apvaxo())avouq , xvva IcoKpaxp 7xspv())epopsvov skev , xe daaKovxa aepo- 

bome” and foolishly-uttering much other nonsense , about which I know nothing , neither much 
Paxsvv Kav (t^uapoovxa TCoMvpv aMcpv i|)^oapvav , wepv cov syco ewavco ooSev ouxs peya 
nor little . And I say this , not to show-dishonor to knowledge of that kind , if anyone is wise 
ouxe pvKpov . Kav keyco cocg oox axvpa£pv>v xpv £7uaxpppv xovaoxpv , ev xvq eaxvv aoijvoc; 
about such matters . May I never have to defend myself against Meletus on such a charge ! 

7vspv xcov xovooxcov . Tccocg syco pr| (jvuyovpv orco Meikpxoo xooaoxaq SvKaq ! 

For I, O gentlemen of Athens , thus have nothing to do with these things . Thus I offer 
<t>ap spov, co avSpec; AOpvavov, aAAa ooSev pexeaxvv xouxcov . 8s nape/opav 
19D as witnesses , most of Thy Selves , and I ask Thee to instruct each other , and also 
papxopaq no'khovc, xooq opeov aoxooq , Kav a^vco vpaq SvSaoKevv aMcpkooq xe Kav 
to inform , as many of Thee who ever heard me conversing ; for there are many such persons 
<))pa^svv , oaov rtamoxe aKpKoaxe spoo Svakeyopevoo : 8s evavv 7vo>Aov ov xovouxov 
among Thee ; please inform each other , if anyone of Thee ever heard me discussing either little 
opeov : ouv ijvpa^exe a^kpkovq , ev xvq upcov 7xco7xoxe pKooae £poo Sva^eyopevoo p pvKpov 
or much about such matters ; and from this , you will perceive , that such are also the other things 
p peya 7xepv xcov xovooxcov : Kav ek xooxcov yvcoaeaOe , oxv xovaox’ Kav xakka 
which the multitude say , about me . 
a ov 7ioMuOV ^eyooovv , 7xepv epoo . 

4 But since none of these things are true , neither indeed , if you have heard from anyone 
Akka yap ooxe xooxcov eaxvv ooSev , ooSe y’ ev aKpKoaxe xvq 

19E that I take in hand to teach people and that I vnake money by it; this is neither true . 
coq eyco £7uxevpco mvSeoevv avOpcorcooc; Kav 7ipaxxopav xpppaxa , xooxo ooSe aikpOet; . 
Although this also seems to me to be Beautiful indeed , if anyone is able to teach people , 

£7T£v xooxo Kav Sokev pov evvav Kakov ye , ev xvq evp ovoq x’ navSeoevv avOpconooc; 
just as Gorgias of Leontini and Prodicus of Ceos and Hippias of Elis . For each of 

coGTtep xe Topyvac; o Aeovxvvoq Kav FIpoSvKoc; o Kevoc; Kav Irauac; o H^evoq . yap eKaaxoq 
these men , O gentlemen , is able to go into any one of the cities and persuade those young 
xooxcov , co avSpeq , eaxvv ovoq x’ vcov evq eKaaxcov xcov nokecov nevOooavv xooxooq veooq 
men , who can freely associate with whomsoever they wish among their own fellow citizens ; 
xooq , ovq npovKa £,ovevvav co av Pookcovxav e£,eaxv eaoxcov xcov nokvxcov 
20A to give up the association of their fellow citizens to associate with them , paying them money 
anokuvovxac; xac; ^ovooavac; eKevvcov £,ovevvav aijuavv SvSovxaq xPhh 01101 

and thank them for it besides . And since there is another wise man here , a Parian , 

Kav /apvv 7ipoaev8evav. Kav enev eaxv akXoq ooijvoc; avpp evGaSe Flapvoc; 
who I learned was in town ; for I happened to meet a man who has spent much more money on 
ov eyco poGoppv £7uSppoovxa :yap exo/ov 7vpoaek0cov avSpv oq xexekeKe n^evco xpppaxa 
sophists than all the rest, Callias , the son of Hipponicus ; for he has two sons , 
ao^vaxavc; p ^opnavxeq ov ak^ov ,KaAAva xco I7X7 vovvkoo : yap aoxco eaxov 8oo ovee , 
therefore this is what I asked this man ; I said , “O Callias , if on the one hand , both Thine sons 
oov pv avppoppv xooxov , 8’ eyco , Q KaMaa , ev pev aoo ovee 


happened to be two colts or two calves , then we should be able to acquire and hire a manager 
sysvsaGqv too 7i©A,© q poGX© , svxopsv av iWvPsvv Kav pva0©GaG0av £7UGxaxqv 
for Selves ; a certain Self who could make Selves Harmoniously Beautiful and Good 
aoxovv , aox© oq av novqGsvv spsJAsv Ka^co xs Kav ayaOco 

20B in The Virtue/Excellence Proper for Selves . Thus he would be either a horse-trainer or a 
xqv apsxqv JtpoGqKOOGav : 8’ ooxoq av qv q xvq x©v ut7UK©v q x©v 

farmer . But now on the other hand , since they are two human beings , whom have Thou in mind 
yseopyvKcov. vov 8’ sneiSq sgxov avGpccmeo , xvva sxevq 8V v © 

to acquire as their manager ? Who has knowledge of that kind of Excellence ; of the human-kind 
?ox,psvv £7uaxaxqv ; xvq sgxw £7UGxqp©v xqq xovaoxqq apsxqq , xqq av0p©Ttwqq 
and of the citizen ? For I think Thou has looked into the matter , because Thou has those sons . 
xe Kav TCoiUxvKqq ; yap ovpav gs SGK£(|)0av Sva xqv Kxqavv xcov mecov . 

“Is there anyone , or not ?” said I, “Certainly said he .“Who , and where from , and what price 
sgxw xvq q oo ; sijvqv sy© raxvo ys , q 8’ oq . Tvq Kav woSarcoq , Kav 7 togoo 
for his teaching ?” said I, “Evenus (Phaedo 60D) , O Socrates , from Paros , five minae said he . 

SvSaGKSv ; qv 8’ sy© , Eoqvoq , © X©Kpaxsq , IJapvoq , nsvxs pv©v , stpq . 

20C And I said that Evenus was Blessed , if he truly had this Art and was able to teach It 
Kav sy© xov Eoqvov spaKapvaa , sv ©q aYqG©q s/sv xaoxqv xqv xs/vqv Kav SvSaGKsv 
so very reasonably . I myself would indeed be proud and also affect grace , if 
oox©q sppsJoDq . sy© aoxoq av oov sKaJAovopqv Kav xs Kav qPpovopqv , sv 
I had knowledge of these matters . But I do not have that knowledge , O gentlemen of Athens . 
qruaxapqv xaoxa : aJA’ yap oo £7uaxapav , © avSpsq AGqvavov. 

5 Thus perhaps someone might rejoin : “What then , is Thine Business , O Socrates ? 

oov va©q xvq av Yno^aPov : xv A/A’ saxv aov xo npaypa , © I©Kpaxsq ; 
From whence have these slanders themselves arisen against Thee ? For certainly , without a doubt 
noGsv av SvaPo^av aoxav ysyovaavv aov ; yap ys Sqnoo 

Thine reputation as such and this logos , has not arisen while Thou were doing nothing more out 
goo (pqpvq xoGaoxq xs Kav ^oyoq , oo ysyovsv snsvxa rcpaypaxsoopsvoo ooSsv nspvx- 
of the way , than the other citizens , unless , Thou were doing something other than the many . 
xoxspov x©v a?A©v , sv pq sicpaxxsq xv a?Aovov q ov no'khoi: 

20D Therefore tell us , what it is , in order that we may not act thoughtlessly concerning Thee 
oov^sysqpvv, xv sgxw , vva qpsvq pq aoxoaxsSva^ropsv 7xspv goo . 

The man who says this , seems to me to speak Justly , and I will try to show Thee , 

o J^syrov xaoxv, Soksv pov J^sysvv SvKava , Kay© nsvpaGopav awoSsvIqav opvv , 
what this is , that has brought about my reputation and this slander . So listen . 
xv xooxo sgxw , 7TOx’ o 7V£7iovqKsv spov xo ovopa xs Kav xqv SvaPoYqv . Sq aKoosxs . 

And perhaps , on the one hand , I shall seem to some of Thee , to be joking ; however , 

Kav VG©q psv So£,© xvgw op©v ixav^svv , psvxov 

be well-assured , that I shall speak All The Truth , to Thee . The fact is , O gentlemen of Athens , 
vgxs so , sp© naaav xqv aYqGsvav opvv . yap , © avSpsq AGqvavov, 

that I have acquired this reputation on account of nothing else than by a certain wisdovn . 

sy© SGxqKa xooxo xo ovopa Sv’ ooSsv a/A’ q Sva xvva GO())vav . 

What kind of wisdom is this then ? Only that, which is in like manner , human wisdom . 

7iovav GO(|)vav xaoxqv Sq ; qnsp sgxw VG©q av0p©7xvvq GO(|)va . 

For / happen to he really wise in this wisdom ; but these men perhaps , of whom I was just now 
yap kvvSovso© swav ovxv Goc|)oq xaoxqv x© : 8s ooxov xax’ ooq apxv 

20E speaking , might be Wise in Something Greater than the human-kind , or I do not know , 
s^syov , av svsv ao<|)ov xvva psv<^© q Kax’ av0p©7vov , q ook sx© , 


what I say . For I at least, certainly do not have Knowledge of Self , but whoever says 1 do , 
u ^eyeo. yap syeoys Srj ou S7tXGxapax aoxpv , akV ogxxc; ^rjai 

is lying and speaking to slander me . And , O men of Athens , do not interrupt me with noise , 
\|/soSexax is kou i^eysx stu xp 5xa(3oM| spp . kou , co avSpeq AOpvavov, pp OopuPpapxs pop 
even if I may seem to Thee , to be boasting ; for The Logos which I will give is not spoken by 
ppSs av So^eo upxv ^eyexv xx psya : yap xov koyov ov av epco ou ^eyeo 
me , but by The Speaker to whom I shall refer is of Sufficient Authority . For of my wisdom , if 
epov, akk’ exq xov ^eyovxa avovaco a£,xoxpscov . yap xpq eppq sx 

indeed it is a kind of wisdom and of its nature , I will offer Thee The God of Delphi as Witness . 
Sp sgxxv xxq Goijna Kax oxa , mps£,opai upxv xov 9sov ev As^oxt; xov papxopa . 
21A For I suppose that Thou knows Chairephon . This man was my companion from youth 
yap 7ioo rare Xaxps())covxa. ooxoq pv epoq exaxpoq sk veoo 

and also a member of Thine political party , and shared in that recent exile and came back 
Kax xco sxaxpoq opeov xco 7xAp9sx xe Kax £,ovsi|)oye xaoxpv xpv xfxuypv Kax Kaxp^9s 
with Thee . And so Thou certainly knows the kind of man Chairephon was ; how single-minded 
ps9’ opcov. Kax Sp xaxs, oxoq Xaxpei))eov pv, eoq GijxoSpoq 

he was , toward whatever he would set out to do . 
ex)) o xx opppasxev. 

Well, once he indeed also went to Delphi and was so bold as to enquire of The Oracle this : 
Kax 710X8 Sp Kax e^9cov exq Ae^ouc; exo^ppae pavxeuaaa9ax xooxo : 
And , O gentlemen , do not make a disturbance at what I say . For he indeed asked , if there were 
Kax, co avSpsq, pp 9opuPexxe , 07xep ^eyeo : yap Sp ppexo, ex exp 
anyone wiser than 1. Then , The Pythia replied that, “ There was no one wiser ” . And in regards 
xxq ao())(oxepoc; epoo . ouv p IIo9xa avex^ev exvax ppSeva aoijxcoxepov . Kax 7xepx 
to these matters , the brother of Self who is here , will bear witness to Thee , for that man is dead . 

xooxeov o aSeJujxoq aoxou ooxogx papxoppaex upxv , s7xexSp eKexvoq xexe?ieoxpKev . 

6 But consider for the sake of what , do I tell these stories . For I am going to show Thee , from 
21B 5s lK8X|/aa9s eveKa cov ^syeo xauxa : yap psMuo 5x5a£,sxv upaq, 

whence the slander against me has arisen .For when I heard this , in my heart I thought to myself: 
o9ev p 5xa|3oXp pox ysyovev . yap syeo aKouaaq xauxa svs9opooppv ouxcoax : 
“What in the world does The God mean , and what kind of riddle/puzzle is this ? For I am Aware 
xx 7ioxs o 9soq ^syex, Kax xx 7roxe axvxxxexax; yap eyco ^uvoxSa 

of Myself that 1 am indeed neither much wise nor little . What in the world then , does He mean , 
epaoxco cov Sp ooxe peya ao())oc; ooxe apxKpov . xx 7roxe ouv ^eysi 

by Pronouncing me to be the wisest ? For without a doubt, He certainly cannot be lying ; 

(JxaaKoov sps exvax aoijxeoxaxov; yap Sp7tou ys ou x|/euSsxax : 

for that is not Lawful for Self !” And for a long time , on the one hand , I was in dire straits 
yap ou 9epxq auxco. Kax tcoMov xpovov pev p7xopouv 

as to what in the world He meant. But thereafter on the other hand , with great reluctance , 
xx 7X0X8 ^sysx. S7xeixa rcavu poyxq 

I turned to searching for meaning of Self , somewhat as follows . 
expa7xoppv S7xx (^pxpaxv auxou xxva xoxauxpv. 

I went to one of those who had a reputation of being wise , Reasoning that there , 

H^9ov S7xx xxva xcov Sokouvxcov exvax aoijxeov , e^ey^eov eoq svxau9a , 

21C if anywhere , by bringing to The Light The Revelation of The Oracle ; and showing that 
sx 7xsp7tou, a7xoi|)avcov xo pavxexov xco xpp^po Kax oxx 

“Here is this man that is wiser than I, but Thou said I was Then , upon examining this man - 

ouxogx 8gxx aoijxcoxepoc; epoo , Ss go ei|)pG9a spe . ouv SxaGK07xcov xouxov - 




Is Socrates applying The Touchstone , here , in his exposition of The Truth (Gold) 

Just: : As 

He did , there , in The Gorgias where he coined this word ? 

For , there , he applied Callicles , as possessing all the qualities of The Touchstone 
to the opinions of his own soul , so that if Callicles agreed with him , then they would be True ( Golden ) ! 

Here There 

Human wisdom - “no one wiser”-as Apollo is his Witness \ “you have been sufficiently educated”487b 
Good-will The opportunity to show-cducatc-SrSacsrv-tcach-cn lighten \ “beware of being overwise”487d 
“I shall speak The Perfect Truth” \ “Ability ... proven by your free speech”487d 

for I need not call him by name , but it was one of the politicians , whom I was examining 
yap Ssopar ooSsv ksysrv ovopaxr, 8s r)v ttq xcov 7tokrxrKcov , ov syco ctkotcov 
when 1 had an experience such as this , O men of Athens , - While conversing with him , this very 
7tpoc; xt 87xa0ov xorooxov , eo avSpsq AGpvaror kou Sraksyopsvoq aoxco , ooxoq 
man seemed to me to appear to be wise to many other people , but especially on the one hand , 
o avpp sSo£,s pot Soicsrv srvar aoi|)oc; rcokkorq akkorq avGpamorc; xs kou pakraxa psv 
to himself, while on the other hand , he was not; and then I tried to give evidence to Self, that on 
saoxco , 8’ sivou oo : Kansrxa s7xsrpcoppv Ssucvovar aoxco , oxi 

2 ID the one hand , he believed himself to be wise , but was not. So because of this , I became the 
psv oiorxo srvar goi))oc; , 8’ err) oo. oov svxsoGsv amyx - 

object of hate to him and to many of those present; and so , on the other hand , as I went away , 
0oppv xooxco xs rear nokkorc; xcov mpovxcov , oov 8’ anrcov 

1 Reasoned to myself that, “On the one hand , I am wiser than this human-being ; 
skoyr^oppv 7ipoq spaoxov oxr, psv syco srpr aoijicoxspoq xooxoo xoo avGpconoo : 

for neither of us knows anything Beautiful and Good , but this man thinks he knows something 
yap ooSsxspoq ppcov siSsvai ouSsv Kakov xayaGov , akk’ psv ooxoq ovsxav siSsvai xv 
when he knows nothing , whereas I at least then , do not know , and neither do I think 1 do . 

srScoq ook , 8s coansp syco oov , ook oiSa , ooSs ovopav : 

At any rate , it is likely , that I am wiser than this man only by this small trifle : 

yoov souca svvav ao^coxspoc; xooxoo aoxco ys xooxco apucpco xivi : 
that what I do not know , neither do I think I know .” 
oxr a pp orSa ooSs oiopar siSsvai. 

2 IE Thereafter I went to another of those who had the reputation of being wiser than he , and 

svxsoGsv pa S7r’ akkov xcov Sokoovxcov srvar aoijrcoxspcov SKsrvoo , rear 
these same things happened to me ; so there also 1 became the object of hate both to him and 
xaoxa xaoxa sSo£,s por : rear svxaoGa a7ipy0oppv Kaxsrvco Kat 

to many others . 
nokkorq akkorq . 


7 Then after this then , I went forth from one to another in succession , while on the one hand , 
ouv Meta xaux’ pa r|5r| s(t)s£,riq , kou psv 

distressed , alarmed and perceiving that I was hated , but nevertheless on the other hand , 
Morcoupsvoq kou SsSvcoq kou avaOavopsvoc; on a7rpx©avoppv , opcoq 8s 
I thought that must make The Business/Service of The God to be of the highest importance ; 
sSoksv avayKouov 7iovevG0av xo xou ©sou svvav 7vspv 7x^svaxou 

Therefore I had to go Investigate what The Oracle meant, in relation to all those who were 
ouv vxsov gkotcouvxv xv xov xppcrpov ^sysi £7U anavxac; xouq 
reputed to know anything . And by The Dog (Theuth) , O gentlemen of Athens ; for I must 
SoKouvxaq svSsvav xi . kou vp xov Kuva , co avSpsq A0pvavov : yap Ssi 

22A speak The Truth to Thee ; something such as this , in Truth , was my experience indeed ! 

^sysvv xaM|0p npoq upaq: xv xovouxov p syco S7va0ov ppv 

On the one hand , as I Investigated , according to The God , those who had the most reputation , 
psv ^pxoovxv Kara xov 0sov, ov paMaxa suSoKvpouvxsq 

necessarily appeared to me , to be clearly in the most need , but on the other hand , others who 
8svv sSo^av pov oAayou xou 7x^svaxou svSssvq , 8s a^ov 

were of less repute , were superior men in regards to being Mindful . Surely then I must 

s%svv (jvau^oxspov SoKouvxsq svvav s7usvKsaxspov avSpsq Jtpoq xo i))povvpcoc; . Sp Ssv 
display to Thee my Wandering , as that of one who performs labors (an ass), in order that The 
87tvSsvc;av upvv xpv sppv 7x^avpv cocmsp xvvaq tcovouvxoc; rcovouq , vva p 

Oracle might also be shown to be irrefutable by me . For after the politicians , I went to the poets , 
pavxeva Kav ysvovxo avs^syKxoq pov. yap psxa xouq 7xoMxvkouc; pa stu xouq novpxaq 
22B those of tragedies , and those of dithyrambs , and the others , thinking that there , I would 
xouq xcov xpaycoSvcov xe Kav xouq xcov 8v0upapPcov Kav xouq aAAouq , ovxa cocg svxau0a 
finally grasp upon The Self-Evident Truth that myself was less enlightened than they . Then 
KaxaM|V|/opsvoq S7x’ aoxoijvcopco spauxov apa0saxspov sksvvcov . ouv 

I took up the works of Selves that appeared to me to be most carefully elaborated by Selves ; 
ava^apPaveov xa 7iovppaxa auxeov, a sSoksv pov paMaxa 7xs7vpaypaxsua0av auxovq 
I asked Selves what they meant, so that I might at once also learn something from Selves . 
Svppcoxcov auxouq , xv ^syovsv , vv’ av apa Kav pavdavovpv xv mp’ auxeov . 
Therefore I am ashamed to tell Thee The Truth , O gentlemen ; but yet it must be told . For 
ouv ava/uvopav suisvv upvv xaM|9p , co avSpsq , 8s opcoq ppxsov . yap 
there was hardly a word spoken by Selves that could be spoken better by all those present 
coq oMyou s7xoq s^syov auxeov av sursvv (3s?avov anavxsq ov napovxsc; 

about the poems which Selves had composed . Therefore , again in the case of the poets 
7xspv cov auxov s7xs7iovpKsaav. ouv Kav sv nepv xeov novpxeov 

22C I Suddenly Recognized This , that what they composed , they composed not, by Wisdom , 
oMyco eyvcov xouxo , oxv a novovev novovev ou aoi|)va 

but by some natural ability , and by being Divinely-Inspired , just as the prophets and the givers 
a^a xvvv (Jjugsv Kav svbouava^ovxeq , coartep ov ©eopavxevc; Kav ov 

of Oracles ; for these on the one hand , also express many beautiful thoughts , but on the other 
XPpcrpcoSov : yap ouxov pev Kav ^syouav noAAa Kav KaA,a , 8s 

hand , know nothing of which they speak . Thus it was Evident to me that the poets had also 
vaaavv ouSev cov ^syouav. stjvavpaav pov ov wovpxav Kav 

experienced some experience such as this . And at the same time , 1 perceived that on account of 
7X87vov0oxsc; xv 7ra0oc; xovouxov : Kav apa pcr0oppv Sva 

the poetry of selves , they thought they were wisest of humans in other things as well, in which 
xpv rcovpavv auxeov ovopsvcov evvav aoijveoxaxeov av0pco7xeov xa^a Kav , a 


they were not. So I went away from them also , thinking that I excelled them in that same respect 
paav ook . oov arrpa kou oiopsvoc; 7xspiysyovsvai too aoxco svxsoOsv 

in which I also excelled the politicians . 
ecmsp kou xcov rcokixiKcov. 

8 Finally then , 1 went to the handicraftsmen . For 1 was aware that I knew nothing , 
Tsksoxcov oov pa S7U xooq yeipoxs/vac;: yap spaoxco i;ovpSp STuaxapsvco ooSsv , 

22D as one might say , but I knew I would indeed find that they knew many and beautiful crafts . 

cot; snoc, suxsiv , Ss pSp y’ soppaoipi oxv xooxooq s7uaxapsvooc; nokka Kai Kaka . 
And on the one hand , in this , 1 was not deceived ; for they did know , that which 1 knew not, 

Kai psv xooxoo ook s\|/soa0pv , aAA’ pruaxavxo a syco pnvGxappv ook 

and in this way they were wiser than I. But on the other hand , O gentlemen of Athens , the good 
Kai xaoxp paav aoijicoxspoi poo . akk , co avSpsq AGpvaioi, ov ayaGoi 

fabricators also , appeared to me to have the same failing , just as the poets ; by reason of being 
Sppioopyoi Kai, sSo£,av poi s^eiv xaoxov apapxppa , Kai 07xsp oi 7toipxai : Sia 
good practitioners of their craft, each one thought himself to be the wisest in other matters of the 
xo Kakcoq s£,spya^scrOai xpv xs/vpv sKaaxoq p^ioo sivai aoijxoxaxoq xakka xa 
22E highest importance , so that the self folly of selves obscured that wisdom ; so that I asked 
psyiaxa , Kai p aoxp 7xkpppsksia aoxcov a7XSKpoTixsv sKsivpv xpv aoijnav : cocrx’avspcoxav 
myself in behalf of The Oracle , if myself would prefer to be as I am in this way , by being neither 
spe wisp xoo xppapoo , rcoxspa spaoxov av Ss^aippv sysiv cooutsp s/co ooxco , oov ppxs 
wise at all, in their kind of wisdom nor unenlightened in their ignorance , or to be in both ways as 
aoijiot; xi xpv sksivoov aoi|)iav ppxs apaGpc; xpv apaGiav , p sxeiv apijioxspa a 

they are . Thus I replied to myself and to The Oracle , that it was Better for me to be 
sksivoi sxougiv .oov aTCSKpivappv spaoxco Kai xco xpp^po , oxi kocnxskoi poi sxeiv 
just as I am . (coarcsp sxeo.) 

9 Surely then on the one hand , much ill-will has arisen against me from this Investigation , 

Sp psv noXkax ans^Osiai ysyovaai poi Ek xaoxpai xpq s^sracrscoq , 

23A O gentlemen of Athens , and such as is most harsh and oppressive , so that many slanders 
co av8psc; AGpvaioi, Kai oiai xcxks7xcoxaxai Kai Papoxaxai, coaxs ixokkaq SiaPokac; 
have resulted from selves , thus on the other hand , I have been given the name of “wise” for this . 
ysyovsvai arc’ aoxcov, 8s sivai ksysaGai ovopa goi))oc; xooxo 

For on each occasion , those who are present, think I am wise in the same matters in which 
yap SKaaxoxs oi 7iapovxsq oiovxai ps sivai aoijiov aoxov xaoxa a 

1 would confute someone else ; but The Bold Truth is , O gentlemen , that in fact, The God is 
av s£,sksy£,eo akkov : 8s xo kivSovsosi , co avSpsq , xco ovxi o Gsoc; sivai 

Wise and in that Oracular Verse He means this , that “Human wisdom is hardly of some value 
aoijioc;, Kai sv xooxco xco xppcipro ksysiv xooxo , oxi p avGpconivp aoi|)ia okiyoo xivoq a^ia 
and of no worth at allAnd it is Manifest that He does not say this of Socrates , but by applying 
Kai ovSsvoq : Kai (Jiaivsxai oo ksysiv xoox’ xov XcoKpaxp , 8s 7tpoaKsxppG0ai 
23B my name , has made me a Paradigm (Golden) , as if He had said that: “This one of Thee , 
sps xco ovopaxi, noioopsvoc; sps mpaSsiypa , coansp si av sutoi oxi, ooxoq opcov , 

O human-beings , is wisest; and whosoever, just as Socrates , Recognizes that they are 
co avGpconoi, saxiv aoijjcoxaxoc;, oaxu; coansp IcoKpaxpq syvcoKsv oxi saxi 
in Reality , in no way worthy , in respect to Wisdom 
xp akpGsia ooSsvoq a^ioq npoq aoi|)iav . 

Therefore on the one hand , 1 am still even now going about this Quest , Searching and 
oov psv syco sxi Kai vov uspucov Taux’ i^pxco Kai 


Investigating according to The God ; anyone , whether citizen or foreigner , who I think is wise ; 

spsopv Kara xov Osov , nva kou tcov aaxcov kou £,svcov av ovcopav svvav goiJjov: 

and when he does not appear to be wise to me , giving aid to The God , I bring to light that 
kou snsiSav pp SoKp poi Pop0cov xco 0sco svSsiKvopav oxv 

this person is not Wise . And by reason of This Business , neither do I have leisure to attend to 
scm ouk ao(|)oc;. kou 0710 xaoxpq xpq aa/oMac; ooxs gxoM| npa^av 

23C any “affairs of state” worth mentioning , nor any of “my own” , but on the other hand , 
xv xcov xpq noTscoq a£,vov ^oyoo ooxs xeov ovksvcov , aXX’ 

1 am in extreme poverty on account of my Service of The God . 
svpv sv popva nsvia Sva pov xpv ^axpsvav xoo Osoo . 

10 And in addition to these affairs , the young men who have the most leisure ; 

8s Ilpoc; xooxovq , ov vsov ovc; sgxvv paMaxa a/okp , 
the sons of the richest men , accompany me of their Self accord , finding pleasure in hearing 
ov xcov 7tAoogvcox(xxcov , smKokouOoovxsq pov auxopaxov /aipoocnv cxkooovxsc; 
people being examined , and often , Selves imitate me , since they take in hand 
xcov avOpcowcov s^sxa^opsvcov , kou Tto^kaKvc; aoxov pvpoovxav sps , svxa STUxsvpoocnv 
to examine others ; and then , I suspect, they find a great abundance of people who , on the one 
s£,sxa(^svv aXTovq : Kouvsvxa , ovpav, sopvaKoocn 7iokM|va(t)0ovvav avOpamcov psv 
hand , think they know something , but on the other hand , know little or nothing . Therefore , 
ovopsvcov svSsvav xv, 8s svSoxcov oiUya p ouSsv . ouv , 

as a result, those who are examined by Selves , become angry with me , but not with Selves , 
svxsoOsv ov s£,sxa^opsvov U7t’ aoxcov opyv^ovxav spov , aTT’ oo/ aoxovq , 
and say that “Socrates is a most polluted person who is utterly-corrupting the youth 
kou ^syouGiv coq XcoKpaxpq saxv xvq pvapcoxaxoc; 8vai|)0svpsv xooq vsouq : 

23D But when anyone asks selves , “By doing what and by teaching what ?” , they have nothing 
kou S7isv8av xvq spcoxa aoxooq , o 7tovcov xv kou o SvSaaKcov xv, smooch ouSsv 
to say , since they are mistaken , but in order that they may not appear to be at a loss , they repeat 
svTvsvv, aAk’ ayvoouavv, 8s vva pp Sokcogvv arcopsvv, ^syooavv 

these stock charges against all the philosophers , about “the things in the air and the things 
xa xaoxa npo/sipa Kaxa navxcov xcov (jnkoaoitjouvxcov , oxv xa psxsoopa Kav xa 
beneath the earth ,” and “do not believe in The Gods and “make the inferior argument 
0710 ypq, Kav pp vopv^svv 0souq , Kav tvovsvv xov pxxoo koyov 
the superior.” For they would not, I suspect, care to say the Truth , that it is becoming very clear 
Ttpsvxxco . yap av ouk , ovopav, s0s^ovsv ^sysvv xa aAp0p , oxv yvyvovxav KaxaSp^ov 
that on the one hand , they pretend to know , but that on the other hand , they know nothing . 
oxv psv 7cpoG7iovoopsvov svSsvav, 8s svSoxsq ouSsv. 

23E Since then , 1 believe , they are lovers of honor and ambitious and numerous , and speak 
axs ouv , ovpav, ovxsq (jn^oxvpov Kav aijvoSpov Kav rcoAAov, Kav ksyovxs<; 
about me , in a concerted and persuasive way , they have filled your ears , both long ago , and 
7ispv spoo ^ovxsxaypsvcoq Kav xu0avcoq , sp7vs7TApKacnv upcov xa coxa Kav 7iakav Kav 
recently , with slanders . From among them , Meletos has attacked me , and Anytos and Lycon ; 
aijvoSpcoc; SvaPa^kovxsq . sk xooxcov Kav Mskpxoq S7is0sxo pov, Kav Avoxoq Kav Aokcov , 
Meletos on the one hand , angered on account of the poets , but on the other hand , Anytus for 
MsApxoq psv ax0opsvoq U7isp xcov 7iovvxcov, 8s Avoxoq U7rsp 

24A the fabricators and the politicians , and furthermore , Lycon for the orators ; so that 
xcov Sppvoupycov Kav xcov tcoMxvkcov , 8s Aokcov orvsp xcov ppxcopcov : coaxs , 


as I said in the beginning , I should be amazed , if I were able to remove this 
onsp sys s^syov apxopsvoq, av Gaopaipoip , si syco siriv oioq t’ s£,s?isa9ai xauxpv 
slander of thine in so short a time when it has grown in this way so great. There Thou has 
tr)v SiaPoikpv uprov sv outgo oXayGO xpovoo ysyovuiav outgoc; noAApv . xaux’ upiv saxiv 
The Truth , O gentlemen of Athens , and 1 speak without covering-up or dissembling anything 
xaM|9p, co avSpsq AGpvaioi, kou syGO ^syro ou8’ aTCOKpui|/apsvoq unoaxsi^apsvot; 
from Thee , neither great nor small. And yet I know very well, that I have become hated 
upac; ouxs psya ouxs pucpov . koutoi oiSa axsSov , oxi ans/Oavopai 
for these ways ; which is also a sure-sign , that I am speaking The Truth , and that this 
xoic; aoxoic; : o kou xsKpppiov , oxi ^syro aikp9p kou oxi aoxr| 

is the slander against me and these are The Causes . (The Reasonings of Cause and effect meno 98) 
ecm p SiaPoM| p sps Kai xauxa saxiv xa aixia . 

24B And whether thou investigates these matters now or hereafter , you will find that it is so . 
kou sav (^pxpapxs xauxa xs vuv sav xs au9iq, suppasxs outgoc; . 

11 Thus on the one hand , concerning the accusations which the first accusers made against 

ouv psv nspi Kaxpyopouv gov oi npGoxoi Kaxpyopoi 

me , this is a sufficient defense before thee . On the other hand , in regards to Meletos , “the good 
pou auxp saxiv ncavp ano’koyia npoc; upac; . 8s npoc; Ms^pxov xov aya9ov 

and patriotic” as he says , and of these later ones , I will try to defend myself next. 
xs Kai (f>iA07ioAiv , goc; (|)pai, Kai xauxa xouc; uaxspouc; rcsipaaopai arco^oysiaGai psxa 
So once more , just as if these were another set of accusers , let us take up in turn their sworn 
yap au9ic; Sp , Goansp xouxcov ovxcov sxspcov Kaxpyopcov , A,aPGopsv au xouxgov xpv avxio- 
statement. So it runs as follows : It states that Socrates is a criminal because he utterly-corrupts 
poaiav. 8s s/si tcgoc; goSs : ijipaiv IcoKpaxp aSiKsiv 8iai|)9sipovxa 

the youth and does not believe in Those Gods which the state believes , but in other new Spirits . 
xouc; vsouc; xs Kai ou vopi^ovxa 9souq ouc; p noMc; vopi^si, 8s sxspa Kaiva Saipovia . 
24C Such then , on the one hand , is the accusation . But let us examine each point of this 
xoiouxov Sp psv saxiv xo syKkppa . 8s s^sxaaGopsv SKaaxov sv xou xouxou 
accusation . He says I am unjust because I corrupt the youth . But I, O gentlemen of Athens , 
syK^ppaxoq. ())pai ps aSucsiv yap Siai|)9sipovxa xouc; vsouc;. 8s syro , go avSpsc; AGpvaioi, 
say that Meletos is indeed unjust, because he lightly takes in hand serious matters , 

(pppi Ms^pxov ys aSucsiv , oxi paSicoc; xapisvxi^sxai arcouSp , 
by involving people in a lawsuit, pretending , to be serious and concerned 
Kadiaxac; avdpGonouc; sic; ayrova , npoaTCOioupsvoc; anouSa^siv Kai KpSsadai 
about those matters , for which , he never cared at all. But that this has to be so , 

7xspi xouxco npaypaxiov cov raonoxs sps^pasv ouSsv . 8s goc; xouxo s%si outgoc; , 

I will also attempt to bring forth to light for thee . 

Kai nsipaaopai S7u8si£,ai upiv. 

12 Come then , O Meletos , and tell me ; does Thou consider of great importance , or not, 

Ssupo , go Ms^pxs, Kai sins poi: noisi nspi rcoAAou p aXXo xi, 

24D that the youth be as good as possible ? 

goc; oi vsGoxspoi saovxai Ps^xiaxoi oncoq ; 

Meletos : I do indeed ! (EyGosys .) 

Soc : Come then , now tell them , who makes Selves better . For it is clear that Thou knows ; 

I9i Sp , vuv sms xouxoic; , xiq noisi auxouc; Ps^xiouc; . yap Sp^ov oxi oia9a , 
being indeed the object of Thine care . For on the one hand , Thou has found the one person 
ys aoi ps^ov. yap psv s£,supGov xov 


who utterly-corrupts them , as you say , and you bring me before these gentlemen and accuse me . 

Svai|)9svpovxa , eoq ())r|q, svoaysvc; sps xouxovov Kav Kaxpyopsvc;: 

Come then, and say indeed who makes Selves better and disclose , who he is . 

i0i 8s sine 8rj rcovouvxa auxovc; Ps^xvouc; Kav ppvuoov , xvc; xov egxvv . 

. . . Do you see , O Meletos , that you are silent and have nothing to say ? . . . And yet, 
opaq , co MsM|xs , oxv ovyac; Kav s/svc; ouk suvew ; Kavxov 

does it not appear to Thee to be disgraceful and sufficient proof indeed of what 1 say ; that it has 
ouk 8ok£v gov Evvav avoypov Kav vKavov xsKpppvov 8r| oo £yco ^syeo , oxv 
24E never been the object of Thine Care ? But do say , O good man , who makes Selves better ? 

ooSsv gov p£psM|K£v ; aAA’ suxs , co 'ya0£ , xvc; tcovsv auxouc; apsvvooc; ; 

Meletos : The laws . 

Ov vopov. 

Socrates : But that is not what I ask , O excellent one , 

Aaa’ xooxo oo spcoxeo , oo PeA/xvgxe , 

but what human-being , and whose Self in the first place knows this , These Laws . 
aXXa xvc; avOpcmoc; , Kav ooxvc; aoxo npcoxov ov8s xooxo , xouc; vopooc; . 

Mel: These very men , O Socrates ; the jury . 

Ooxov , to leoKpaxsc;, ov SvKaoxav. 

Soc: What do you mean , O Meletos ? 

ITcocg ^sysvc; , oo MsM|xs ; 

Do these gentlemen know how to educate the youth , and make them better ? 

evgv ovov ov8s 7ravS£U£vv xouc; vsooc;, xs Kav 7VOVOOGW Psikuouc; ; 

Mel: Most certainly .( MaMoxa.) 

Soc: Which ones ? All, or only some of Selves but others not ? 

noxspov anavxEc;, p psv ov aoxcov 8’ ov oo ; 

Mel: All. (ArcavTsq .) 

Soc: Well said indeed , by Hera , and this is a great multitude of assistants . 

so Asysvq ys vp xpv Hpav , Kav 7ioAApv ai|)9ovvav xeov co(|)£?voovxo)v . 

25A But how about this then ? Does the audience know how to make Selves better , or not ? 

8 e xv Sp ; ov aKpoaxav ovSs wovoogw PePixvooc; p oo ; 

Mel: These also . (ooxov Kav .) 

Soc: And how about the councilors ? [50 elected members by each of the 10 tribes = 500] 

Ss Tv ov Poo^soxav; 

Mel: The councilors also .( ov Poo^soxav Kav.) 

Soc: But then , O Meletos , those in the assembly , the general assembly , 

AXk apa , co Ms^pxs , ov sv xp sKK^pava , ov EKK^pavaaxav, 
surely they do not corrupt the youth ? Or do they also , all make Selves better ? 
pp Svai|)0svpouGV xouc; vseoxspooc;; p KaKsvvov aiavxs; tvovougvv Pe^xvouc; ; 

Mel: They also . (KaKsvvov.) 

Soc: Accordingly , all the Athenians , as it appears , make Selves beautiful and good , 
apa , ITavxEc; AOpvavov, coq eovkev , tcovougv Ka^ouq KayaOouc; 
except myself, for , I alone , corrupt them . It this what you mean ? 

7 xM|v spou , Ss Eyco povoq 8vai|)0£vpco . ouxco ^EyEvc; ; 

Mel: Most emphatically and by all means , that is what I mean ! 

Gi|)oSpa Ilavo xauxa ^syeo . 

Soc: Thou has thoroughly-uncovered my utter-wretchedness indeed ! Now tell me ; does it appear 
KaxsyveoKac; spou Tlo^pv SuGxoxvav y’ . Kav anoKpvvav pov: Soksv 

25B to thee to have to be in this way also in the case of horses ? That on the one hand , those who 
gov sx 8lv ouxco Kav p 7tspv unvouq ; psv ov 


make selves better are all human-beings , but on the other hand , he who injures , is one person ? 
7xoxouvxsq auxouq PsVnouq sxvax mvxsq avGpconot, 8s o Sva^Osvpcov sxq xxq ; 

Or is quite the opposite of this the case : that he who is able to make them better is one person , 
q nav xouvavxxov xouxou psv o cov oxoq x’ noxsiv Ps?aiooq sic; xxq 

or very few individuals ; the horse-trainers . Whereas the many , if by chance they deal with 
q mvu oMyox , oi xtctcikox : 8 s ox no'khoi savnsp £,ovcogx 

and use horses , injure them ? Is it not so , O Meletos , both in the case of horses and in that 
ypcovxou uuxoxq , Siai|)GsipouGiv ; s^sx ouy ouxcoq , co MsM|xs , kou 7 ispi uuxcov Kai 
of all other animals ? . . . Wholly without a doubt it is , whether Thou or Anytos deny or agree ; 
anavrcov a/Acov (^cocov ; mvxcoq 8qnoo , sav go xs Avuxoq ou (pqxs sav xs (pqxs : 

for it would be a Great State of Blessedness in the case of the youth, if on the one hand , one 
yap av sxq xiq no/Aq suSaxpovia 7ispx xouq vsouq, sx psv sxq 

25C alone , corrupts Selves , but on the other hand , the many Benefit Selves . But since , 
povoq Siai|)9sipsi auxouq , 8’ ox Tto^ox coiJxs^ooctiv . ak^a yap , 

O Meletos, you “display” sufficiently enough, that Thou never seriously thought about the youth, 
co Ms^qxs, s7uSsiKvoaai iKavcoq , oxx ouSsv s^povriaaq xcov vscov, 
and by clearly bringing forth into the light Thine own carelessness , that Thou has never at all 
Kai Galoot; arcoijxaivsiq aaoxoo xqv apsJcsxav, oxx ooSs7io7ioxs 

made the object of Thine care , the very things about which , Thou brings me into court. 
gox psps^qKsv 7xspi cov siGaysxq sps 

13 But still, tell us , for the sake of God , O Meletos , whether it is better to live among 

8s sxx sues qpxv , Ttpoq Gsoq , co MsVqxs , noxspov sgxxv apsivov oxksxv sv 
useful citizens , or worthless ones ? . . . O friend , do answer ; for I am not asking anything hard . 
XpqGxoq noMxaiq q 7rovqpoiq ; co xav , anoKpxvax : yap ouSsv spcoxco xox ya hsnov . 
Do not the worthless ones , on the one hand , always do some evil to those who associate 
ovxaq oux ox novqpox psv asx spya^ovxai xx KaKov xooq syyuxaxco 

with themselves , while on the other hand , the good ones always do some good ? 

sauxcov, 8’ ox ayaGov xx ayaGov; 

Mel: By all means indeed ! (ITavu ys .) 

Soc: Is there then , anyone who wishes to be harmed by his associates rather than benefited ? 

25D Egxxv oov oGxxq Poo^sxax P^anxsaGai orco xcov Iquvovxcov pa?Aov q axjxs^siaGai; 
Soc: . . . Answer, O good man ; for The Law , also orders Thee to answer . 

arcoKpxvax, co ayaGs : yap o vopoq Kai ks^susx anoKpxvsaGax . 

Is there anyone who wishes to be harmed ? 
sgG’ OGxxq Pou^sxai P^artxsaGax; 

Mel: Of course not .(Sqxa Oo .) 

Soc: Come then ; on what grounds do you bring me in here ; that I am corrupting the youth 
(psps Sq , Ttoxspov siGaysxq sps Ssopo coq Siai|)Gsipovxa xooq vscoxspouq 
and making them worthless either voluntarily or involuntarily ? 

Kai rcoxouvxa novqpoxspouq SKovxa q aKovxa; 

Mel: Voluntarily I say indeed . 

EKovxa sycoys. 

Soc: What then , O Meletos ? Are Thou , at your age , so much wiser than I, at my age , 

Tx Sqxa , co MsVqxs ; sx ao ovxoq cov xqMKoaSs xogooxov Goijxcoxspoq spoo xqMKouxou , 
25E so that Thou , on the one hand , have Recognized , that the bad ones , always do some harm 
cogxs go psv syvcoKaq oxx ox KaKoi asx spya^ovxai xx KaKov 

to those most near themselves , while the good always do some good ; but I, on the other hand , 
xooq paMGxa 7xAqGiov sauxcov , 8s ox ayaGox ayaGov : Sq syco 8s 


have reached such a depth of ignorance , so that I am even ignorant of this , that if I make anyone 
r|Keo svc; toaootov apadvaq , coats kou ayvoco toot’, on , sav 7iovqaco tiva 
of my associates suffer, I am in danger of receiving some harm from self, so that consequently , 
xcov iqovovtcov po/9qpov , KvvSovsoaco LaPsvv ti KaKov an ’ aotoo , coats 

I do such harm as this , voluntarily , as Thou say ? {How does ignorance, a passive condition , 
rcovco to toaootov KaKov skcov , coq au (jiqq ; act voluntarily , an active condition ? JFB) 

I am not persuaded by Thee of this , O Meletus , nor do 1 think , is any other human-being ! 
syco oo 7tsv9opav aov taota , co MsLqts , 8s ooSs ovpav ooSsva aLLov avGpconcov : 
26A Therefore either 1 do not corrupt them , or if I corrupt them , 1 do so involuntarily , so that 
aLL’ q oo Svai|)9svpco , q sv Svai|)9svpco, aKcov , coats 

Thou are indeed lying in both events . But if 1 corrupt them involuntarily ; for such involuntary 
au ys \|/soSsv Kat’ apijvotspa . 8s sv Svai|)9svpco aKcov, tcov tovootcov aKooavcov 
errors of judgment, The Law is not to bring them here , but to take them and to instruct and to 
apaptqpatcov , vopoq sativ oo svaaysvv Ssopo , aLLa La(3ovta SvSaaKsvv kou 
advise them in private . For it is clear that, if I understood , I would indeed stop that which 
vooGstsvv iSia : yap SqLov oti, sav pa9co, ys waoaopav o 
I do involuntarily . But Thou , on the one hand , avoided associating with me and instructing me , 
novco aKcov. 8s ao psv sijvoysq <;oyysvsa9av pov Kav SvSa£,av 

and were not willing to do so , but you bring me in here , where it is The Law to bring in those 
Kav ook qdsLqaac; , 8s svaaysvq Ssopo, ov satvv vopoq svaaysvv tooq 
who are in need of correction , but not in need of education . 

Ssopsvooq KoLaascoq , aAA’ oo paGqascoc;. 

14 But certainly , O gentlemen of Athens , on the one hand , this is already clear , as 1 said 
ALLa yap , co avSpsq AGqvavov, psv tooto satvv qSq SqLov , o syco sLsyov , 
26B that Meletos never paid attention , neither much or little for them . But, nevertheless , 
otv MsLqtco rccemots spsLqasv oots psya oots pvKpov tootcov . 8s opcoq 
do tell us , O Meletos , in what way Thou says that I corrupt the youth ? Or is it indeed evident, 
Sq Lsys qpvv , co MsLqts , rccoq (pqcg ps Svai|)9svpsvv tooq vscotspooq ; q Sq SqLov 
according to the indictment, which Thou wrote , that it is by teaching them not to believe in 
Kata tqv ypaijvqv , qv sypa\|/co , otv SvSaaKovta pq vopv^svv 
The Gods that the state believes in , but in other new Spirits ? Does Thou not say , that 
9souq ouq q 7toLvq vopv^sv, 8s stspa Kavva Savpovva ; oo Lsysvq taota , otv 
it is by teaching , that I corrupt ? 

SvSaaKcov Svai|)9svpco ; 

Mel: Very much so indeed , that is what I say . 

ITavu aijvoSpa oov psv , taota Lsyco . 

Soc: Now then , O Meletos , for the sake of These Divine Selves , of which The Logos 
26C tovvov , co MsLqts , Llpoq tootcov tcov 9scov aotcov , cov o Loyoq 
now is , explain even more clearly , both to me and to these gentlemen . For I am unable 
vov satvv , sots stv aai))satspov Kav spov Kav tovq tootovq avSpaavv . yap syco oo Sovapav 
to understand , whether Thou says that I teach them to believe that there are some Gods , and thus 
pa9svv , Ttotspov Lsysvq ps SvSaaKsvv vopv^svv svvav tvvaq 9sooq , Kav apa 

Self believes that there are Gods , and 1 am not altogether godless , nor am I unjust, 
aotoq vopv^co svvav 9sooq , Kav svpv ook to 7tapa7iav a9soq ooSs aSvKco 
in that way . Flowever, these are not The Very Gods in whom the state indeed believes in , but 
taotq , psvtov, oo ooansp q 7toLvq ys , aLLa 

Others , and this is what you accuse me for ; that 1 believe in Others ; or does Thou say that my 
stspooq , Kav toot’ satvv o syKaLsvq pov, otv stspooq : q i))qc; ps 


Self does not believe in The Gods at all, and that I teach this atheism to others . 
aoxov outs vopx^sxv xooq 0sooq navxamGX xe SxSaGKsxv xaoxa aZZooq . 

Mel: That is what I say , that thou , absolutely , does not believe in The Gods . 

Tauxa Zsyco, cot; xo napanav oo vopx^sxq 0sooq . 

Soc: O amazing Meletos , why do you say this ? Accordingly then , do I neither believe , 

26D Q Gaopadps MsZqxs , xx xva Zsysxq xaoxa ; apa ooSs vopxdpo 

that The Sun nor even The Moon , are Gods , just as the other human-beings ? 

qZxov ooSs GsZqvqv sxvax Gsooq , coansp ox aZZox avGpamox; 

Mel: No by Zeus , O gentlemen of the jury , for he says on the one hand , that The Sun is stone , 
Ma Ax , co avSpsq Sxxcaaxax, S 7 xex (|)qGXv psv qZxov sxvax ZxGov 

and on the other hand , The Moon earth . 

8 s xqv GsZqvqv yr|v . 

Soc: Does Thou think Thou are accusing Anaxagoras , O dear Meletos , and does Thou so despise 
oxsx Kaxpyopexv Ava£,ayopoo , co (jxxZe MsZqxs , Kax ooxco Kaxa^povexq 

these gentlemen and think they are so impoverished in letters , so as not to know , that the 
xcovSs Kax oxsx aoxooq sxvax a 7 xsxpooq ypappaxcov , cogxs ook sxSsvax, oxx xa 
books of Anaxagoras of Clazomenaea are full of such doctrines ? And of course , the youth also 
PxpZxa Ava£,ayopoo xoo KXadpxpsvxoo yspsx xooxcov xcov Zsycov ; Kax Sq ox vsox Kax 
learn these doctrines from me , which they can buy sometimes , if the price happens to be high , 
26E pavOavooaxv xaoxa nap’ spoo , a scqsaxxv 7 ipxapsvoxq svxoxs , sx navo n oZZoo , 
for a drachma (I silver coin = 6 obols) in the theatre while laughing at Socrates , for having 
Spaypqq sk xqq opxpaxpaq Kax KaxaysZav XcoKpaxooq, sav 

pretended they are of Self , especially when they are also so absurd ! But for the sake of God , 
7 tpoG 7 Toxr|xax sxvax saoxoo , aZZcoq ovxa xs Kax ooxcoq axona . aZZ’ co rcpoq Axoq , 
does Thou think in this way , that I believe there is not even one God ? 

gox vopxd^sxv ooxcogx 8 okco sxvax ooSsva 0sov ; 

Mel: No , by Zeus , thou certainly does not, not in the very least. 

pa Axa psvxox Oo 008 oncoaxxoov. 

Soc: This is certainly unbelievable , O Meletos , not even as Thou appears to me , to Thyself! 

xaoxa psvxox Anxaxoc; , co MsZqxs, sx y’ Kax coq SoKsxq spox , aaoxco . 

For this man appears to me , O gentlemen of Athens , to be quite arrogant and uncorrected , 
yap ooxoax 8 oksx spox , co avSpsq AGqpaxox, sxvax raxvo oPpxaxqq Kax aKoZaaxoq , 
and actually , to have written this indictment in a hubristic spirit of unrestrained impulsiveness . 
Kax axsyvcoq ypa\|/aa0ax xaoxqv xqv ypaijxqv xxvx oppsx Kax aKoZaaxa Kax vsoxqxx. 

27A For he is just like one who sets-up a riddle in order to test us : “Will Socrates the wise man , 
yap cooTtsp soxksv £,ovxx0svxx axvxypa 8xa7xsxpcopsvco , XcoKpaxqq o Goijxoc; 
thus recognize , that 1 am indeed jesting and contradicting myself, or will I thoroughly deceive 
apa yvcoasxax spoo Sq yapxsvxx^opsvoo Kax Zsyovxoq svavxx spaoxco , q s£,a 7 iaxqaco 
self and the others who are listening ? ” For this self has come to light to myself 

aoxov Kax xooq aZZooq xooq aKooovxaq ; yap ooxoq aoxov ijxaxvsxax spox 
to contradict himself in the indictment, as if he were to say /‘Socrates is unjust because he 
xa svavxxa Zsysxv saoxco sv xq ypaijxq , coansp av sx sxtcox : XcoKpaxqq aSxKsx 
does not believe in Gods , but does believe in Gods And thus , this is game he is playing . 
oo vopxdpov Gsooq , oXka vopx^cov Gsooq . Kaxxox xooxo sgxx mxdpxvxoq . 

15 Please Join me in examining , O gentlemen , how he appears to me to say this ; 

8 q Hovs 7 iXGKs\|/aa 0 s , co avSpsq, q <()axvsxai pox Zsysxv xaoxa : 
27B but thou , O Meletus , answer us ; and thyselves , do just as I asked thee in the beginning ; 

8 s go , co MsZqxs , arcoKpxvax qpxv , 8 s opsxq , napqxqGapqv 07xsp opaq Kax’ ap/aq 


bear in mind not to make a disturbance if I conduct my Logos in my accustomed way . 

pspvpaOs pp OopPew sav pov wovcopav xooq ^oyouq sv too sicoGoxi xponco . 

Soc: Is there any human being , O Meletus , who believes , on the one hand , that there are 
Egxvv ogxvc; avOpcemeov , oo MsVpxs , vopv^sv psv svvav 

human affairs , but on the other hand , does not believe in human beings ? 
avOpccuxeia, 8s oo vopv^sv av0pco7vooq; 

. . . Let him answer , O gentlemen , and please do not make a disturbance in one way or another . 

aTXOKpiveabco , co avSpsq, kou pp bopoPsvxco aXXa Kav aXXa . 

... Is there anyone , on the one hand , who does not believe in horses , 

£G0’ OGXVq psv oo VOpV^SV V7X7XOOq , 

but on the other hand , does believe in the business of horsemanship ? 

8 s npaypaxa umnca ; 

... Or on the one hand , who does not believe that flutists exist, 
p psv oo vopv^sv aoVpxaq svvav, 

but on the other hand , that the business of flutists (music) does exist ? 

8 s npaypaxa ao^pxvKa ; 

. . . O best of humans , if thou does not wish to answer ; 
co apiaxs avSpeopv , sv go pp (3oo^sv oatoKpivaGbav, 
then I say to thee and to these others present, that there is not. 
syeo ^syco gov Kav xovq a^ovq xooxovgv , sgxvv ook . 

27C But at least please answer this next question . 
aXXa xo sxv ys a7toKpvvav xooxco : 

Is there anyone on the one hand , who believes that the business of spirituality exists , 
sg9’ OGXvq psv vopv^sv npaypax’ Savpovva svvav, 

but on the other hand , does not believe in spirits ? 

8 s oo vopv^sv Savpovaq ; 

Mel: There is not. 
sgxvv Ook . 

Soc: How you please me , by answering reluctantly under compulsion by these gentlemen . 

Qq covpaaq , oxv a7XSKpvveo poyvq orco avayKa^opsvoq xooxcovv. 

On the one hand , is it not the case then , that thou says I do believe in spirits , whether new 
psv ookoov (ppq ps vopv^svv Savpovva , svx’ oov Kavva 

or old , and that I teach that belief; but then I do indeed believe in spirits , according to thine 
svxs na^avav , Kav SvSaGKsvv : aXX’ oov ys vopv^eo Savpovva Kaxa gov 
Logos , and thou swore to that also in thine indictment. But on the other hand , if I believe 
xov Xoyov , Kav SvoopoGco xaoxa Kav sv xp avxvypaijvp . 8s sv vopv^co 

in spirituality , it is without a doubt, quite inevitable that I also believe in spirits ; is it not so ? 

Savpovva , sgxvv Sqrtoo noAAq avayKq ps Kav vopv^svv Savpovaq : s%sv oo/ ooxeoq ; 
... It has to be so ; for I assume that thou agrees, since thou does not reply . But surely are we not 
s%sv Sp : yap xvbppv gs opo^oyoovxa , snsvSp ook anoKpvvsv. 8s pxov oo/v 
27D led to think that Spirits are indeed Gods or The Offspring of The Gods ? Yes or no ? 

pyoopsba xooq Savpovaq ys 0sooq p navSaq 9scov ; (|)pc; p oo ; 

Mel: Very much so . (ITavo ys .) 

Soc: Is it not the case then , that if I am led to believe in Spirits , as thou says , if on the one hand , 
Ookoov svrtsp pyoopav Savpovaq, ©q go 4>pq, sv psv 

Spirits are some kind of Gods , then that would be thine riddle and jest, which I mentioned ; 
ov Savpovsq svgvv xvvsq 9sov ,xoox’ av svp gs avvvxxsG0av Kav /apvsvxv^sGbav o syeo (Jvppv, 
thou affirms that while I do not believe in Gods , that I do in turn believe in Gods , 

(|)avav sps oo/ pyoopsvov bsooq na/uv ao pysvG0av 9sooq , 


since without a doubt, I do indeed believe in Spirits ; but if, on the other hand , Spirits , in turn 
snsiSprisp ye pyoopai Saipovaq: si 8’ oi Saipovsq au 

are certain illegitimate children of Gods , either by nymphs or by any others , which indeed 
sigiv xivsq vo0oi naiSsc; 0 scov p sk vopi|)cov p sk xivcov akkcov , cov 8p 
are also said to be ; would any man believe , on the one hand , that there are children of Gods , 
kou ksyovxai , av xiq av0pco7xcov pyovto psv sivai miSaq 0scov , 

but on the other hand , no Gods ? Thus , it would be similarly absurd , just as if one would be 
8s pp 0sooq ; yap av svp opouoq axonov , coansp si xiq av 

27E led to believe , on the one hand , that there are offspring of horses and donkeys , namely , 
pyoixo psv miSaq uuxcov Kai ovcov, 

mules , but on the other hand , does not believe there are horses and donkeys . 
xooq ppiovooq, 8s pp pyoixo sivai uuxooq Kai ovooq. 

Therefore , O Meletus , there is no question about it; thou must have written this suit 
akk’ , co Mskpxs , sgxiv ook oncoq go sypai|/co xaoxpv xpv ypai|)pv 
not to test ourselves , but rather because thou were at a loss as to what real/true/actual injustice 
ouxi a7io7isipcopsvoc; ppcov, p oxi anopcov akp0sq aSucppa 

thou could accuse me . Thus , there is no way for thee to persuade any human , who possesses 
syrakoic; spot : 8s oncaq go nsvOooq xiva avOpecmeov av s/ovxa 

even a little mind , that it is possible for the same person to believe in spiritual and divine affairs , 
Kai GpiKpov voov, coq sgxiv xoo aoxoo pysiaOai Kai Saipovia Kai Osia , 

and again for the very same person , not by any means whatsoever , believe that there exist 
Kai ao xoo aoxoo ooSspia pp/avp sgxiv 

28A neither Gods nor Spirits nor Heroes . 
ppxs Osooq ppxs Saipovaq ppxs ppcoaq . 

16 Well then , O gentlemen of Athens , on the one hand , that 1 am not unjust, according to 
Akka yap , co avSpsq AOpvaioi, psv coq syco ook aSiKco Kaxa 

the indictment of Meletus , seems to me , not to need much of a defense , but this is enough . 
xpv ypaijipv Mskpxoo , Soksi poi oo sivai 7xokkpq anokoyiaq , akka xaoxa Kai iKava : 

But thou may be assured , that what I said before , is also true , that great hatred has arisen 
8s igxs so sv oxi o xoiq sksyov spnpoGOsv sgxiv Kai akpOsq , oxi rcokkp ans/Osia ysyovsv 
against me , and many others . And this it is , which will cause my condemnation , if anything 
npoq poi Kai nokkooq. Kai xoox’ sgxiv o aippGSi , savnsp 

is to cause it; not Meletus nor Anytos , but the slander and ill-will of the many . This has also 
aipp , oo Mskpxoq ooSs Avoxoq , akk’ p SiaPokp xs Kai (jiOovoc; xeov nokkcov . a Kai 
certainly condemned many other good braves , and I think will continue to do so ; so there is 
28B Sp pppKsv nokkouq akkooq Kai ayaOooq avSpaq , 8s oipai aippasiv Kai : 8s 
no danger , that it will stop with me . 
ooSsv Ssivov , pp Gxp sv spoi. 

But perhaps someone might certainly say : “Are you not ashamed , O Socrates , 

8’ iGroq xiq av oov suxoi six’ ook aiG/ovsi, co XcoKpaxpq , 
of having followed such a pursuit, from which thou are now in danger of being put to death ?” 
S7iixpSsuGac; xoiooxov sixixpSsopa , s£, oo vovi KivSovsosiq anoOavsiv ; 

But I should make to this person this Just Logos : “You do not speak well, O Sir, 

8s syco av avxsoxoipi xooxco Sucaiov koyov oxi oo Kakcoq ksysiq , co avGpcons , 
if thou thinks a man in whom there is even a little Usefulness , ought to take under consideration 
si oisi avSpa oxoo sgxiv Kai xi GpiKpov oi|)skoq, Ssiv o7iokoyi^sG0ai 


danger in life or even death , and not rather , consider this only , when they act/take action , 
kvvSovov too Cy |v r) xsGvavav, akV ook gkotcsvv sksvvo povov , otav npaixp , 
whether that which they do , is Just or unjust, and the works of a good man or a bad one . 
rcoxspa Jtpaxxsv Sucoua r| aSuca , kou spya ayaGoo avSpoq p kcxkoo . 

28C For according to Thine Logos , the Half-Gods would indeed be worthless ; such as died 
yap xco aco Loyco xcov ppvGscov av ys sisv (jiaoLov oaoi TsxsLsoxpKaGW 
at Troy , and the others , including the Son of Thetis , who so despised danger , in comparison 
sv Tpoia xs or aAAov Kai o ovoq xpq ©sxvSoc;, oq xoaooxov KaxsijipovpGsv xoo kvvSovoo 
with enduring any dishonor, that when the Mother of Self ; being a Goddess , said , 
rcapa xo owopsvvav xv ava/pov , coaxs s7xsvSp p ppxpp aoxco , ouaa Gsoc; , sursv , 
as he was eager to slay Hector , something like this , as 1 believe , ‘ O Son , if Thou honorably- 
wpoGopoopsvco awoKTSwav Eicxopa , raoc; ooxcoav, coq syco ovpav, co 7rav, sv xvpco- 
avenge the slaughter of Thine companion Patroclos and kill Hector, Self shall die ; for 
ppasvc; xov i|)ovov xcosxavpco TkxxpoKLco Kav anoKxsvsvc; EKxopa , aoxoq a7io0avsv: yap 
immediately she says after Hector,Destiny is ready for thee ’ ; but he , on hearing this , on the 
auxiKa, ((jpav , psG’ Eicxopa noxpoq sxovpoc; xov : 8s o aKooaac; xaoxa 
28D one hand , esteemed death and danger lightly , but dreaded much more , to live ignobly and 
psv xoo Gavaxoo xoo kvvSovoo coLvycoppas , 8s Ssvaac; nok o paLLov xo £p|v KaKoq Kav 
indeed not to avenge his friends , and straightway , he said , ‘ may I die, after bringing Justice 
cov pp xvpcopsvv xovq (JnLovq , aoxvKa , ((ipav , xsGvavpv S7iv0svc; SvKpv 
to the wrongdoer, that I may not remain here, an object of ridicule besides the curved ships ; 
xco aSvKoovxv , vva pp psvco sv0aSs KaxaysLaaxoc; mpa Kopcovvavv vpoav 
a burden upon the land Does Self think he considered death and danger or not ? 
ayQoq apooppc; . ovsv aoxov (JipovTVGav Gavaxoo Kav kwSovoo pp ; 

For , The Truth , has to be in this way , O gentlemen of Athens ; wherever someone may 
yap xp aLpGsva s/ev ooxco , co avSpsq AGpvavov, oo xvt; av 
station themselves , being led to believe it is Best to be there or placed there under order of their 
xa£,p saoxov pypaapsvoc; (3 sLtvgtov svvav p xa/Gp svxaoGa on’ 

Leader , they must, as it seems to me , remain and run their risks , in no way taking under- 
apxovxoc;, Ssv , coq Soksv spov, psvovxa kvvSovsosvv , ppSsv 07 x 0 - 
consideration , neither death nor any other thing , in any way , before dishonor . 

Loyvipopsvoo ppxs Gavaxov ppxs oXTo ppSsv 7ipo xoo avaxpoo . 

17 Therefore I would have done a dreadful thing , O Athenian gentlemen , if, on the one hand , 
oov Eyco av svpv svpyaapsvoq Ssvva , co AGpvavov avSpsq , sv, psv 
28E when the leaders whom you chose to command me , stationed me both at Potidaea 
oxs ov apxovxst; ouq upsvq svLsaGs apxsvv poo sxaxov ps Kav sv LkmSava 
and at Amphipolis and also at Delium , and 1 remained there , where I was appointed at that time, 
Kav sv ApijmvoLsv Kav S7U ApLvco , psv spsvov skswov oo sxaxxov xoxs 
just as everybody else and ran the risk of death ; but on the other hand , when The God appointed 
coGxcsp Kav oXkoq xvq Kav skwSovsoov a7xo0avsvv , 8s xoo Gsoo xaxxovoc; 

me , as 1 believed and understood , with orders that I must spend my life , Philosophically- 
cocg syco copGpv xs Kav owsLaPov , s£,sxa^ovxa Ssvv ps ^pv ijnLoao- 

29A Examining both myself and others , then , 1 were to desert my post there through fear or 
-ijioovTa Kav spaoxov Kav xooq aTTovq , 8s Lurovpv xpv xa^vv svxaoGa (poPpGsvcg p 
death or any trouble whatsoever . Then , it would be a dreadful affair , and truly , at that time 
Gavaxov p aAAo npaypa oxvoov . xav svp Ssvvov , Kav coq aLpGcoc; tot’ 
one should justly bring me into court, on the charge that 1 do not believe that there are Gods ; 
xvc; av SvKavcoq svaayov ps svq SvKaaxppvov , oxv oo vopv^co svvav Gsooc; 


by distrusting The Oracle and being fearful of death and think I am wise when I am not. 

outsiGeov xri pavxsva kou SsSv©q Oavaxov Kav ovopsvoq aoijvoq ©v svvav ook . 

For to fear death , O gentlemen , is nothing else than to think one is wise when one is not; 
yap xo SsSvsvav xov Oavaxov, © avSpsq, saxvv ooSsv akko p Soksvv svvav aoijvov ovxa pp : 
for it is thinking one knows that which one does not know . For , on the one hand , no one even 
yap saxvv Soksvv svSsvav a ook ovSsv. yap psv ooSsvq 

knows whether Death does not happen to be The Greatest of All Goods for human-beings , 
ovSs sv xov Oavaxov 008 ’ xoyxavsv ov xcov psyvaxov n avxcov ayaOeov xco avOpauxco , 

29B but on the other hand , they fear it, as if, they knew well, that it is the greatest of ills . 

8 ’ SsSvaav ©q svSoxsq so oxv saxv x©v psyvaxov kokcov . 

And how is this not the most reprehensible form of ignorance , that of thinking one knows that 
Kai 7 xco<g saxvv xooxo ouk p s 7 vovsvSvGxoq aoxp apaOva , p xoo ovsaOav svSsvav 
which one does not know ? But equally , O gentlemen , it is in this regard I also differ from most 
a ook ovSsv ; 8 ’ va©q , © avSpsq , svxaoOa toot© sy© Kav Svaijvsp© x©v 7 tokk©v 

humans , and if 1 were to say that I am wiser in anything , it would indeed be in this , that by not 
avOp©n©v , Kav sv xoo i))avpv svvav ao())©Tspoq x© , av Sp xoox© , oxv ook 
knowing sufficiently enough about the affairs in Hades , I also do not think I know in this way . 

svS©q VKav©q 7 xspv x©v sv AvSoo Kav ook ovopav svSsvav oox©: 

On the other hand , 1 do know , that it is wrong and dishonorable to do injustice and to disobey 

8 s ovSa oxv saxvv KaKov Kav avaxpov xo aSvKsvv Kav a 7 xsv 0 sv 

Those that are Better than I, whether God or human . Surely then , I shall never fear nor avoid 

x© Pskxvovv , Kav Os© Kav av 0 p© 7 v© . oov ooSsnoxs ((joppaopav ooSs (|)so£,opav 
those matters concerning which , I do not know whether they happen to be Good , rather than 
29C a pp ovSa sv xoyxavsv ovxa ayaOa 7 ipo 

bad ones , which I know are bad . So that, even if thou acquits me now and are not persuaded 
x©v KaK©v©v ovSa saxvv KaKa : ©axs sv opsvq aijnsxs ps vov 008 ’ a 7 uaxpaavxsq 
by Anytos , who said that either I shovdd not have been brought here from the beginning , or since 
Avox©, oq scjvp p sps Ssvv 00 svaskOsvv Ssopo xpv apxpv p , snsvSp 
I was brought to trial, not putting me to death was not an option , advising thee that, if I were 

svapkOov , oox fi 8 awoKTSwav svvav pp xo ovov x’, ksy©v Ttpoq opaq ©q , sv 

set free , surely , all thine sons wovdd be altogether and utterly-ruined by practicing that which 
Svai))sucqovppv, pSp navrsq up©v ov ovsvq av navTanacn Sva^Oappaovrav s 7 uxp 8 soovxsq a 
Socrates teaches , - if thou should say to me , in reply to this : “O Socrates , on the one hand , 
S©Kpaxpq SvSaaKsv, - sv stp’ 7 vpoq pov svtcovts xaoxa : © S©Kpaxsq , psv 
this time , we will not do as Anytos pleads , but we will let thee go , however, on this condition , 
vov, 00 Avox© 7 Tsvaops 0 a , akk’ aijnspsv as, psvxov S 7 U toot© , 

that thou no longer spends time in This Investigation or in Philosophy ; but if you should be 
©xs ppKsxv Svaxpvpsvv sv xaoxp xp (^pxpasv ppSs i|)vkoao(t)svv : 8 s sav 
29D caught still practicing this business , thou shall die ” ; Thus , if you should let me go on this 
ak©q sxv 7 vpaxx©v xooxo , arcoOavsv : oov sv aijnovxs ps snv xooxovq 
condition which I have mentioned , I will reply to thee , telling thee that, “ Athenian gentlemen , 
07xsp sv 7 xov , sy© av soxovp’ opvv opaq oxv avSpsq AOpvavov, 
on the one hand , I respect and love thee , whereas , I shall obey The God , rather than thee , 
psv aana^opav Kav (jnk© , 8 s 7 xsvaopav x© Os© pakkov p opvv , 

and as long as I may breathe , and able to continue , 1 shall not, in any way cease being a 
Kav s©G7rsp av spnvs© Kav ovoq x’ ©, 00 pp 7xaoa©pav 

Philosopher and cease from Encouraging thee , and always Showing Good-will to any one 
i|)vkoGO(|)©v Kav wapaKsksoopsvoq opvv xs Kav asv svSsvKvopsvoq ox© 


of thee whom I meet, saying in my customary habit that: O best of braves , thou who are 
op©v svxuyxavco , ^syeov ovansp sv©0a , on , © apvaxs avSp©v , ©v 
a citizen of Athens , the greatest of cities , and the most famous for Wisdom and Strength , 
A0qvavoq , xr|q psyvcm|/qq 7 to^s©q kou soSoKvproxaxqq svq oodvav Kai ig/uv , 

29E are thou not ashamed , on the one hand , to care for the acquisition of wealth , 
odk ouG/uvei psv s 7 tvps}ioupsvoq XP r ll iaT ® v 

in such a manner so that thou have as much as possible , and for reputation and for honor , 

07i©q aov saxav ©q nAeiaxa , kou Soc;qq kou xvpqq 

when thou do not care nor take thought for Soundness of Mind and Truth in such a way as to 
8 s ook S 7 ups^ 8 i ooSs ())povxv^svq ((jpovqasooq kou a^qOsiaq O 7 xooq ©q 
what is Best for thine Soul ? And if anyone of thee argues , and says they do care , 1 shall not 
eaxou Ps?avaxq kou xqq \|/oxqq ; Kav sav xv op©v aptjnaPqxq Kav (prj S 7 ups^sva 0 av, ook 
let them go at once , nor shall I go away , but I shall question and examine and refute self 
aijvqo© so0oq 008 ’ oaxsipi, aXk’ spqaopav Kav s£,sxaa© Kav s^sy£,© aoxov , 
and if it appears to me that they do not possess Virtue , but say they do , I shall rebuke self, 

Kav sav SoKq pov pq KSKxqa0av apsxqv, 8 s i))avav , ovsvSv© , 

30A since they place less value on matters that are most precious , but sets more value on matters 
oxv novsvxav s^axvaxoo 7xspv xa 7x^svaxoo a^va , 8 s nAsvovoq nspv xa 
that are of less worth . This , I shall do , to whomever 1 meet, young and old , and foreigner and 
i|)ao^oxspa.xaoxa,av 7tovqa©,ox© svxoyxovv©, Kav vsroxsp© Kav 7 ipsaPoxsp©,Kav £,sv© Kav 
citizen , but most to the citizens , inasmuch as thou are more nearly related to me . For, know 
aax© , 8 s pa?Aov xovq aaxovq , oa© saxs syyoxsp© ysvsv poo . yap , vaxs(ovSa) 
well, that The God Commands me to do this , and I believe that no greater Good , up to this time 
so , o 0soq ks^sosv xaoxa , Kav sy© ovopav ooSsv psv^ov aya0ov rc© 

came to pass for thee in the city than my Service to The God . For I go about doing nothing 
ysvsadav opvv sv xq tco^sv q spqv xqv onqpsavav x© 0s©.yap xspvspxopav 7 tpaxx©v ooSsv 
else than urging thee , young and old , not to care for thine bodies nor thine personal 
aXXo q 7vsv0©v op©v Kav vsroxspooq Kav npsapoxspooq pqxs S7ups^sva0av a©pax©v pqxs 
30B property , more nor even as much , as for thine Souls ; in such a way as to what is Best , 
Xpqpaxrov oijvoSpa pqSs ©q oox© Ttpoxspov xqq \|/oxqq , 07i©q ©q saxav apvaxq , 

by informing thee , that Virtue does not come from money , but from Virtue , comes money and 
^sy©v oxv apsxq ooKyvyvsxav sk xpqpaxrov , oXV s£, apsxqq xPhd 01101 Koa 
all the other Goods for humans , both to the individual and to the people . If, therefore , on the 
anavxa xa oXka aya0a xovq av0p©rtovq Kav vSva Kav Sqpoava . sv oov 
one hand , by saying these things , 1 corrupt the youth , these things , must be injurious ; but if, 
psv ^sy©v xaoxa Svai|)0svp© xooq vsooq , xaux’ av svq P^aPspa : sv 
on the other hand , anyone asserts that I say other things than these , what they say , is untrue . 

8 s xvq (piqcrrv ps ^sysvv aXka q xaoxa, ^sysv ooSsv. 

Therefore this being so , O Athenians , I will say to thee , either do as Anytos says , or not, 

7 ipoq xaoxa , © a0qvavov , av davqv , q 7 vsv 0 sa 0 s Avox© q pq , 

and either let me go , or , do not let me go , knowing that I shall not change my customary ways , 
Kav q aijnsxs q pq aijnsxs, ©q spoo av ook novqaovxoq a?Aa , 

30C not even if I am to die many times over . 

008 ’ sv psAA© xs0vavav xo^aKvq . 

18 Do not make a disturbance , men of Athens ; but continue to do what I asked of thee ; 

Mq 0opoPsvxs , avSpsq A0qvavov, aMT sppsvvaxs ovq pov sSsq0qv op©v , 
by not interrupting that which I should say , but listen ; and I believe thou will Profit by hearing . 
st))’ pq 0opoPsvv ovq av ^sy© , aAA’ aKoosvv : Kav yap ©q sy© ovpav ovqasa0s aKooovxsq . 


For certainly I am going to say some other things to thee , at which thou will likely cry out; 
yap oov pskk© spsvv kou akka ana opvv , si))’ ovq va©q PopasaGs : 
but do not do so , by any means . For know well, that if thou kills me , I, being such as 
akka tcovsvxs xooxo ppSaproq . yap vaxs so sav arcoKxsvvpxs sps ovxa xovooxov oiov 
I say I am , thou will not so much injure me as thou will injure selves ; for on the one hand , 
ksy© sy©, ook psv^© pka\|/sxs sps r| opaq aoxooq: yap psv 

neither could Meletus nor Anytos , injure me ; for that would not be possible ; for I believe 
ooSsv av Mskpxoq ooxs Avoxoq pkav|/svsv sps : yap av ouSs Sovavxo : yap ovopav 
30D that it is not Lawful that a better man be injured by a worse . Flowever , perhaps , they might 
svvav oo Gspvxov apsvvovv avSpi pkawxsaGav orco /svpovoq . psvx’ , va©q , av 
kill me or banish me or disrespect me ; thus in this way , perhaps , on the one hand , they think , 
anoKxsvvsvs r| s£,skaasvsv p axvproasvsv : akka xaoxa va©q psv ovsxav 

they inflict great injuries upon this person , and others may think so , but I, on the other hand , 
psyaka Kama ooxoq , Kav xvq akkoq Ttoo , sy© 8’ 

do not think so ; but they do this much greater injury ; by doing that which they are doing now , 
ouk ovopav, akka tcovsw ooxoq nokv pakkov rcovsv a vow 

by undertaking to kill a man unjustly . Therefore , O gentlemen of Athens , I am now Advocating 
STtvxsvpsvv a7ioKxvvvuvav avSpa aSvK©q . oov, © avSpsq AGpvavov, sy© vov anokoysvaGav 
not so much for the sake of myself, as one might imagine , but for the need/fault of thyselves , 
pp ixokkoo U7xsp spaoxoo, ©q xvq av ovovxo , akka onsp 8s© op©v, 
that by condemning me , thou miss the mark , in thine treatment of A Certain Gift of The God . 

axa\|/pi|)vaapsvov s^apapxpxs opvv nspv xv xpv Soavv xoo Osou . 

30E For if thou put me to death , you will not easily find another such Gift 
xv xpv Soavv xoo Osoo . yap sav sps anoKxsvvpxs , oo paSv©q soppasxs akkov xovooxov 
if I may use a rather absurd figure , that Attaches Himself to the city , just as a gadfly 
sv Kav svtvsv yskovoxspov axs/v©q , npoaKsvpsvov xp 7xoksv, ©ansp xvvoq po©7xoq 
does to a horse ; which on the one hand , is large and well bred , but on the other hand , 

V7X7X© , psv psyak© Kav ysvvav© 8s 

is rather sluggish on account of its great size and needs to be awakened by the stinging . 
v©9saxsp© vno psysOooq Kav Ssopsv© sysvpsaGav vno (po©7voq) 

Surely then it appears to me that The God Attached me to the city in some such way , by which 
Sp Soksv pov o Gsoq npoaxsGsvKsvav sps xp rcoksv xvva xovooxov ovov , oq 
I go about awakening and persuading and reproaching each one of thee , and 1 never cease 
31A sysvp©v Kav 7vsv0©v Kav ovsv8v(^©v sKaaxov sva opaq ooSsv naoopav 

Attaching myself to thee everywhere , the whole day long . Certainly then , as such , another, 
7tpoaKa0v^©v navxaxov xpv okpv ppspav . oov xovooxoq akkoq 
will not come easily to thee , O gentlemen ; then if you are persuaded by me , you will spare me . 
oo ysvpasxav paSv©q opvv , © avSpsq , akH sav 7xsv0pa0s spov, poo i))svasa0s : 

But you , perhaps , might presently be angry , just as those awakened from a nap , and might 
8’ opsvq va©q av xa/’ a/Gopsvov, ©aitsp ov voaxa^ovxsq sysvpopsvov, av 
slap me , as Anytos urges , and may easily kill me ; then thou would pass the rest of thine lives , 
Kpoooavxsq ps , Avoxro wsvGopsvov, av paSvroq anoKxsvvaixs , svxa av Svaxskovxs xov kouvov (3iov 
asleep , if it were not the case , that God , in His Care for thee , should send someone else . 
KaGsoSovxsq, sv pp o Gsoq KpSopsvoq op©v s7U7vsp\|/svsv xvva akkov 

31B But that I happen to be such a one as this ; which having been given as a Gift of The God , 

8’ oxv sy© xoy/av© ovoq xovooxoq ©v SsSoaGav vno xoo Gsoo 

to the city , thou could well-observe in this ; for on the one hand , it is not like human conduct 
xp Tcoksv , av Kaxavopaavxs svGsvSs: yap psv oo sovks av0p©Ttvv© 

for me to have neglected (xo pps/.pKsvai) 


all the affairs of myself, and for me to have endured the neglect of my affairs all these 
to arcavxcov spaoxoo xcov kou sps avsysaGai apsLoopsvcov xcov oiksicov rjSri xoaaoxa 
years , while on the other hand , to be always working in thine interest, by approaching each one 
sxr| 8s asi 7ipaxxsvv opsxspov xo, rxpoaiovxa SKaaxco 

individually , just as a father or an elder brother , persuading thee to Care for Virtue . And 
iSia eocnrsp mxspa r| npsaPoxspov aSsLijiov , 7xsiGovxa s7xipsLsiaGai apsxpc;. kou 
if 1 on the one hand , had taken any Advantage from these affairs and received pay for this advise 
8i psv anskavov xi ano xooxcov kou LapPavcov piaGov xaoxa 7xapsKsLsooppv, 
there would be some Logos to it; whereas now selves surely then also see , that the accusers , 
av siysv xiva Loyov : 8s vov aoxoi 8r| Kai opaxs, oxi oi Kaxpyopoi 
though they shamelessly accuse me of everything else , of this indeed , they have not been able 
ooxco avouayovTooc; Kaxpyoooovxsc; 7xavxa xakka xooxo ys ooy oioi 

31C to work themselves up to such a degree of shamelessness , so as to produce a witness , that I 
syevovxo a7xavaiaxovxpaai xs napaaxopsvox papxopa , coq syoo 

ever either exacted or asked payment from anyone . For I think I can produce a sufficient witness 
7X0X8 r| S7xpac;appv p pxpaa piaGov xiva . yap oipax syoo 7xapsxopai iKavov xov papxopa , 
that I speak The Truth , such as my Poverty . 
cot; Lsyoo aLpGp , xpv rreviav . 

19 Perhaps it may certainly seem atypical, that 1 on the one hand , do indeed go about interfering 
ictcoc; av oov sxvai So£,sisv axo7xov , oxi syoo psv Sp Kai 7xepucov 

in the affairs of others , to give this advice in private , while on the other hand , 1 do not dare 
TroLo7xpaypovoo , 2,upPouLsuoo xaoxa iSxa 8s oo xoLpoo 

come up before thine assembly to advise the city in public . But The Cause of this , 

avaPaivcov sic; xo opsxspov xo 7xLpGoc; ^opPooLsosxv xp tcoLsi Sppocna . 8s aixiov xooxoo 
3 ID which thou have heard me say , at many times and places , is that Something Divine and 
o opsiq aKpKoaxs spoo Lsyovxoq rcoLLayoo 7xoLLaKic; , saxiv xi Gsxov Kai 
Spiritual comes to me ; indeed That which Meletos also ridiculously wrote up in his indictment. 
Saipoviov yxyvsxai pox, Sp o MsLpxoq Kai S7UKcopcoScov sypa\|/axo sv xp ypaijxp : 
But this has been the case beginning from my childhood ; it is a Certain Voice that comes to me , 
8s toot’ ap£,apsvov sk 7xaiSo<; saxxv xxq (|)covp yxyvopsvp spoi, 

and when This comes , This always turns me away , from that which 1 may be intending to do , 
p oxav xooxo ysvpxai, xooxo asx a7ioxps7xsx ps o av psAAeo 7xpaxxsxv , 

but never urges me forward . This is That which opposed me from entering politics . And This 
8s 007X0X8 7xpoxps7xsi : toot’ saxxv o svavxxooxax pox 7xpaxxsxv xa rxoLxxiKa . Kai 
very opposition appears to me to be All Good indeed . For know well, O gentlemen of Athens , 
svavxiooaGai Soksx pox TxayKaLcoc; ys : yap xaxs so , eo avSpsq AGpvaioi, 
that if 1 had undertaken to enter into the business politics , 1 would have been put to death 
si syco s7rsxsippaa 7xpaxxsxv xa 7xpaypaxa 7xoLxxiKa , av a7xoLa>Lp 

3IE long ago and would have not Benefited thee nor myself. And do not be angry with me 
7xaLax Kai av ooSsv coi|)sLpKp opaq oox’ av spaoxov . Kai pp ayGsaGs poi 
for speaking The Truth ; for the fact is , that no human will save their life who Nobly opposes , 
Lsyovxi xaLpGp : yap saxxv oo avGpco7xeov acoGpasxax oaxiq yvpaieoc; svavxxoopsvoq 
in any way , either thee or any other multitude and prevents many unjust and illegal acts from 
ooSsvi p opiv ooxs aLLco 7xLpGsx Kai SiaKcoLoeov rcoLLa aSiKa Kai 7xapavopa 
happening in the city. Thus it is necessarily the case , that whosoever really fights for Justice , 
yxyvsaGai sv xp 7xoLsi, aLL’saxi avayKaxov xov xco ovxi payoopsvov o7xsp xoo SiKaioo , 
32A and if they intend to be preserved for a little while , they must do so privately , not publicly . 
Kai si psAAeo acoGpasaGai oLxyov ypovov iSxcoxsosiv , akka pp Sppoaisosiv . 


20 But of these matters , I will at least, provide thee great signs/proofs ; not by Logos , 

8 ’ xooxeov eyeoye av mpe£,opav opvv MeyaLa xeKpppva , oo Loyooq , 
but that which thou honors , deeds . Hear then my deeds ; of the things that happened to me , 
ahV o opevc; xvpaxe , epya . aKooaaxe 8 r| poo , xa <;opPePpKoxa spot, 
in order that thou may know , that I would not give way to any one in matters concerning Justice 
iva evSpxe , oxv av 008 ’ OTCevKaGovpv svi xo mpa Sucaiov 

through fear of death , but out of both , I would rather die than yield . Thus what I say to thee 
Sevaac; Oavaxov , 8 s ap’ av Kai a 7 xoLovppv pp onevKcov . 8 s epco opvv 
is on the one hand , burdensome and judicial, whereas on the other hand , it is also True . 

psv i()opuKa Kai Sucavuca , 8 s aLpGp. 

32B For 1, O Athenians , never at all held any other office in the city, other than being a member 
yap eyco , co AGpvavov, Ttconoxs ouSspvav pp^a aLLpv apxpv sv xp rcoLev , 8 s ePoo- 
Counsel . And so it happened that our tribe had the Presidency , when thou illegally wanted 
-Leoaa : Kav sxuxsv opeov p vjvoLp vtpoxaveoooaa , oxe opevc; mpavopeoc; ePouLeaGe 
to judge collectively the ten generals , who did not gather up the slain after the naval battle , 
Kpivevv xooc; aGpoouq xooc; SeKa cxxpaxpyooc;, xooc; ook aveLopevooc; 8 K xpq vaopaxvac; , 
as all of thee believed for some time afterwards . At that time , I was the only one of the 
eoc; maw opvv sSo£,s ev xeo xpoveo oaxepco. xox’ eyco povoq xcov 
Counselors opposed to thee doing anything contrary to The Laws ; even though the orators 
7 tpoxaveeov pvavxvcoGpv opvv novevv ppSev 7 tapa xooc; vopooc; : Kav exovpcov xcov ppxopcov 
were ready to inform against and arrest me , while thou urged them on and cried out at them , 
ovxcov svSevKvovav Kav a 7 xaysvv pe , Kav upeov KeLeoovxcov Kav Poeovxeov , 

32C but with Law and Justice on my side , I thought I must run all risks , rather than join thee , 
pexa xoo vopoo Kav xoo SvKavou pe eoppv Sew SvaKvvSuveoevv paAAov p peG’ opvv 
out of fear of bondage or death , when thine wishes happened to be unjust . And that was when 
ijvoPpGsvxa Seapov p Gavaxov , ppeov PooLeoopeveov ysvsaGav pp SiKava . Kav xaoxa pv 
on the one hand , the democracy of the city still existed ; but on the other hand , thereafter when 
pev xpc; SppoKpaxoopevpq no'kscoq sxv Kav : 8 s 87xevSp 

the oligarchy was established , the Thirty , in turn , sent for me to come to the courthouse , 
oJayapyva sysvexo , ov xpvaKovxa ao psxa 7 xep\|/apsvov pe eve; xpv GoLov 
ordering me to bring Leon the Salaminian ; from Salamis , in order to put Self 
7 tpoaexac;av ayaysvv Aeovxa xov ZaLapvvvov sk XaLapvvoc;, vva 7 rep 7 xxov aoxov 
to death . Those oligarchs surely gave many such orders to many others , because they wished 
anoGavov : eKevvov Sp Kav 7 xoLLa ova npoaexaxxov noAAovc; aLLovc;, PooLopsvov 
to implicate as many as they could infect. At that time , however , I again showed forth , 
avxveov coeg 7 xLevaxo<; avavxLpaav : xoxs pevxov eyco ao evsSev£,appv 

32D not by Logos , but by deed , that to me , on the one hand , death meant nothing whatsoever, 
00 Loyeo aAA’ epyco oxv epov pev Gavaxoo peLev, 008 ’ oxvoov , 

if that is not too rude an expression , whereas , I did care about this with all my being , that I must 
ev pv pp aypovKoxepov eurevv, Se peLev xooxoo xo 7 tav xoo Se 

not do anything unjust nor unholy . For , that oligarchic rule , along with all its power , 
ppSev epya^eaGav aSvKov ppS’ avoavov . yap exevvp p apxp ooxeoc; ouaa vayupa , 
did not frighten me , so that I would do anything unjust ; therefore when we came out of the 
ook e£,87xLp^ev epe , coaxe epyaaaaGav xv aSvKov , aLL’ 87xevSp e^pLGopev 8 K xpe; 
courthouse , on the one hand , the other four went to Salamis to bring-back Leon , while 1 on the 
G 0 L 00 , pev ov xexxapec; coxovto evq SaLapvva pyayov Aeovxa , eyco 

other hand , I went far away from home . And perhaps I should have been put to death for this , 

Se eoxoppv anvcov ovKaSe . Kav vaeoc; av aneGavov Sva xaoxa , 


32E if their rule had not been quickly put down . And of these deeds there are many witnesses . 
el r) ap/q pq Sia taxscov KaxsiWGq : kou xooxcov opiv saovxai 7xoAAoi papxopsq . 

21 Take notice then , does thou believe that 1 could have survived so many years , if 1 had been 

Ap’ oov oisgGs ps av SiaysvsaGai xoaaSs sxq , si s- 

doing public business , while acting in ways deserving of a good man ; by coming to the aid 
-npaxxov xa Sqpoaia , kou npaxxcov a^icoq ayaGoo avSpoq , sPoqGoov 
of those matters that are Just , just as one must do , and considering this to be , of the highest 
xoiq Sucaioiq , coansp XPG > Kai snoioopqv xooxo 7xspi 

importance ? Far from it indeed , O gentlemen of Athens . For neither could any other human . 
33A tc^sigxov ; rcoAAoo Ssi ys , eo avSpsq AGqvaioi. yap ooSs av ooSsiq a>Aoq avGpconcov 
But such you will find , that throughout all my life , both in public , if was I engaged in any way , 
aAA’ xoiooxoq ijiavoopai Sva navxoq xoo Pioo xs Sqpocna , si sjipa£,a xi rcoo , 
and in private , I have always been this same human being , and 1 have never , in any way 
Kai iSia ooxoq o aoxoq , jxcojxoxs ooSsvi 

acquiesced to any one in matters concerning Justice , neither to any other person , nor anyone 
Iqoyxcopqaaq ooSsv rcapa xo Sucavov ooxs a?Aco ooxs ooSsvi 

of those , who are said by my slanderers , to be my students . For on the one hand , 1 have never 
xooxcov , ooq i))aGiv sps oi SiaPaAAovxsq sivai spooq paGqxaq . 8s syco ixamox’ 

become a teacher of anyone . But if, on the other hand , any one , whether young or old , 
sysvopqv SiSaaKa^oq ooSsvoq : sv 8s xiq svxs vscoxspoq sirs npsaPoxspoq , 

wishes to hear me discussing and practicing the Calling of myself, that I have never in any way 
srtiGopsi aKousiv poo ^syovxsq Kai npaxxovxoq xa spaoxoo , rcecmoxs ouSsvi 
objected , nor do I, on the one hand , take up discussions only when I am paid , nor then do I 
33B si))0ovr|Ga, ouSs psv iUxpPaveov Sva^syopai pq XPGF 01101 ou § 8 
take them up , but on the other hand , / offer myself up for questioning to poor and rich alike , 
^apPavcov aAA’ mpsxco spaoxov spcoxav Kai nsvqxi Kai 7xkooaico opoicoq , 

and if anyone wishes , they may answer and hear that which 1 will say . And if anything I say 
Kai sav xiq Pou^qxai anoKpivopsvoq aKousiv cov av ^syco . Kai sirs xiq xooxcov 
turns out to be useful or not, 1 should justly , not be held responsible , of that which 1 never 
yiyvsxai xPh 010 ? 81X8 FT > 8 Y® ocv Sucaicoq ook ons/oipi xqv aixiav , cov pqxs 
promised nor ever gave any instruction to any of them ; but if ever anyone says that 
onsGXopqv pqxs 7xeo7xoxs sSiSalqa paGqpa pqSsvi : 8s si nconoxs xiq (Jiqcn 
they learned or heard anything independently/secretly from me , and which instruction/secret, 
paGsiv q aKooaai xi iSia nap spoo Kai o xi 

all the others did not receive , then know well, that they are not telling The Truth . 
n avxsq a?Aoi pq , igxs so , oxi ook ^sysi a^qGq . 

22 But why ever then , do some people , truly love spending so much of their time with me ? 

AkXa Sia xi noxs Sq xivsq x ai P OV)C71 SiaxpiPovxsq noX ov xpovov psx’ spoo ; 

You have heard the reason , O gentlemen of Athens . I told thee The Whole Truth ; it is because 
33C aKqKoaxs , eo avSpsq AGqvaioi : syco sinov opiv xqv naaiv a^qGsiav : oxi 
they love to listen to those that are examined , who on the one hand , think they are wise , 
Xaipoocnv aKooovxsq xoiq s^sxa^opsvoiq psv oiopsvoiq sivai aoijjoiq, 

while on the other hand , they are not; for it is not unpleasant. 

8’ oogi oo : yap saxi ook aqSsq . 

But as He says to me , I have been Commanded to do this by The God , through both 

8s coq cpqpi spoi syco npoaxsxaKxai npaxxsiv xooxo ono xoo Gsoo sk Kai 
Divination and through Dreams and in Every Way through which a human has been Commanded 
pavxsicov s£, Kai svotcvicov Kai navxi xponco Kai consp avGpconco rcoxs 7tpoasxa£,s 


and also through some other Divine Allotment , to do anything whatsoever . This , O Athenians , 
kou a?Ap 9sia poipa npaxxsiv xiq oxiouv. xauxa, co AGpvaioi, 

is True and easily tested . For certainly if I, for my part, on the one hand , corrupt some of the 
33D sgxiv kou aM|9p kou sosi^syKxa . yap Sp si syeoys psv Siai|)9sipco xouq xcov 
Young , and thus , have corrupted some others , then without a doubt, any one of Selves who 
vscov , 8s Sisi|)9apKa xouq , Spixou xivsq auxeov ysvo- 

have grown older , must either recognize/know that 1 have ever yet gave Selves any bad advise 
-psvoi 7ipscrPuxspoi xppv £US syvcoaav oxi syco tccotcoxs auxoiq xi koikov ^ovsPoo^soaa 
when they were Young , Selves should now , come forward to accuse and denounce me . 

ouaiv vsoiq , auxouq vuvi avaPaivovxaq Kaxpyopsiv Kai xipcopsiaGai spou . 

But on the other hand , if Selves do not wish to do it, then some of their relatives - fathers , 

8s si auxoi pp p9s)u)v , xivaq xcov siksuov xcov oiksicov , naxspac; 

or brothers or other kinsfolk - must come forward as it is proper , if indeed the kinsmen of Selves 
kou a8s?u))ooc; kou aXXovq xouq , TtpoapKovxac; , suxsp oi oiksioi auxeov 

have suffered any wrong under my influence ; now is the time to remember . Truly there are thus 
xi KaKov u n’ spou snsnovOscrav , vuv pspvpaGai. navxcoq 8s 

many of Selves here present of whom I see ; first, on the one hand , Crito , who is of my own age 
tcoMioi auxeov svxauGoi mpsiaiv, ouq syco opeo , npcoxov psv Kpixov , spoq pMKicoxpq 
33E and my own tribe and father of Critobulos , who is also present; then there is Lysanias , the 
Kai Sppoxpq, xouSs rcaxpp KpixoPou^ou , ouxoai, snsixa Auaaviac; o 

Sphettian , father of Aeschines ; and present also is Antiphon the Cephisian , father of Epigenes . 
Sijipxxioc;, rnxpp xouSs Aiaxivou , ouxoai sxi Avxu))cov o Krp|)iGisuq , 7iaxpp Eftiysvouc;: 
Then certainly , here are other Selves whose brothers joined in those conversations , 

xoivuv a?Aoi auxoi cov oi aSs^ijjoi ysyovaaiv sv xauxp xp SiaxpiPp , 

Nicostratos , son of Theozotides and brother of Theodotos - Theodotos now being dead , so that 
NiKoaxpaxoq o ©so^oxiSou, aSsXSoq ©soSoxou - o ©soSoxoc; Kai psv xsxsJcsuxpKsv, coaxs 
that one could certainly not stop Self - and then there is Paralus , son of Demodocos , 

SKsivoq av ys ouk KaxaSsp9sip auxou - , Kai oSs ITapa^oc; o AppoSoKou , 
of which Theages was his brother . Then , on the other hand , Adeimantos , son of Ariston , 
cov ©saype; pv aSs^oq. oSs 8s ASsipavxoq o Apiaxcovoq, 

34A whose brother, Plato is present, and Aiantodoros , whose brother , Apollodoros is present. 

ou aSs^oc; n^axcov ouxoai, Kai AiavxoSopog , ou aSs^oq AnoAAoScopoq oSs . 

And 1 can mention to thee many others , certain ones , on the one hand , of whom Meletos should 
Kai syco sxco suxsiv upiv noXXovq a^ouq , xiva psv cov Ms^pxov sxppv 

certainly have produced as a witness in his logos ; but if he forgot it then , let him produce 
paiUaxa napaaxsaGai papxupa sv sauxou xco ^oyco : 8s si s7xs^a9sxo xoxs , mpaaxsaGco 
them now , I yield the floor to him , and let him say , if he has any such witnesses . . . 
vuv, syco mpaxcopco , Kai ^sysxco , si sxei xi xoiouxov. 

But you will find the exact opposite of this , O gentlemen , and that all of them 
34B aAAa suppasxs nav xouvavxiov xouxou , co avSpsq , navxaq 

are ready to offer aid to me , to one who corrupts and works mischief on the relatives of Selves , 
sxoipouq PopGsiv spoi, xco 8ia())9sipovxi xco spya^opsvco KaKa xouq oiksiouc; auxeov , 
as Meletos and Anytos say . For on the one hand , those who have been themselves corrupted , 
coq Ms^pxoq Kai Avoxoq i|)aai. yap psv oi Sisi|)9appsvoi 

might thus have some motive in aiding me ; but on the other hand , what reason could their 
av xax’ sxoisv Xoyov PopGouvxsc;: 8s xouxcov 

proper relatives have , those who have not been corrupted and are already older men ? 
oi rcpoapKovxsc; , oi aSiai|)9apxoi pSp rcpsaPuxspoi avSpsq, 


What other Motive/Logos could they have for supporting me , other than The Correct and 
nva akkov koyov av s/oisv PopGoovxsq spot aXk 1 p tov opGov is Kav 
Just Motive ; that they Realize that Meletos is lying , and that I am speaking The Truth ? 
Sikouov , on £,ovvaaav MsM|xco psv \|/soSopsvco , Ss spot aM|Gsoovxv ; 

23 Surely then on the one hand , let these be nearly all that 1 will Advocate , O gentlemen , and 
Sp psv Evsv xaoxa axsSov awo^oysvaGav , co avSpsq , Kav 

such are other concerns which 1 will have to answer in the same way . Thus on the other hand , 
xovaoxa saxv akka a syco av sxovp’ vacoq . 8s 

perhaps some of thee will be offended when they remember the agonizing trial of thyself , 

34C xa/a xiq opcov av ayavaKxpasvsv avapvpaGsvq xoo aycovv^opsvoq aycovoq spaoxoo, 
if they on the one hand , in a trial of less importance than this , begged and supplicated the judges 
si o psv Kav ayeova s^axxco xooxoov sSspGp xs Kav vksxsogs xooq SvKaaxaq 

with vnany tears , and brought forth children of self, and many other friends 
psxa nokkcov SaKpocov , xs avaPvPaaapsvoq mvSva aoxoo ,Kav nokkovq akkovq (fivAcov 
and relatives , in order that they arouse some sort of exceeding pity ; while 1, on the other hand , 
Kav xcov ovksvcov , vva o xv paJaaxa s^spGsvp , apa syco 8s 

will do none of these things , though I may be apparently , in extreme danger . Therefore perhaps 
rcovpaco ooSsv xooxcov , coq av So£,avpv, xov saxaxov kvvSovov . oov xax’ 
someone with these thoughts in mind may be more-stubbomly disposed towards me , and by 
xvq xaoxa svvopaaq av aoGaSsaxspov axovp 7ipoq ps, Kav 
being angry at this , they may cast their vote in anger . If indeed any one of thee is so disposed , 
opyvaGsvq xooxovq av Gsvxo aoxovq xpv \|/pSov psx’ opypq . sv Sp xvq opcov ooxcoq sxsv, 

-I at least do not believe there is such a person - but if there is , then I think that it will be 
-psv syeoys ook a^vco yap ; 8’ sv ouv Sokco oxv av 

reasonable for me to say to this person , “O Noble One , I also , on the one hand , do indeed have 
34D S7USVKP pov ^sysvv 7tpoq xooxov , co apvaxs , spov Kav psv nov svavv 

some relatives ; for Self says this just as the Logos of Homer says ; 
xvvsq ovksvov ; yap aoxo xouxo Kav xo xoo Opppoo ^sycov 

‘I am not born from an oak nor from a rock ’ , 
syco ooS’ 7VS(|)UKa ano Spooq ouS’ ano rcsxppc;, ODY XIX , 163 
but from human-beings , so that I have relatives , O gentlemen of Athens , and three sons , 
akk’ s£, avGpconcov , coaxs pov svav ovksvov , co avSpsq AGvvavov, Kav xpsvq uvsvq , 
one nearly grown up , and two still children ; but nevertheless I shall bring not one of Selves here 
svq psv pSp psvpaKvov , 8s Suo navSva :akk opcoq avaPvPaaapsvoc; ooSsva aoxcov Ssopo 
and beg thee to acquit me . Why then shall I indeed not, do these things ? Not by being willful, 
Sspaopav opcov aTtov|/pi|)VGaG9av. xv oov Sp ooSsv novpaco xooxcov ; ook aoGaSv^opsvoq , 
O Athenians , nor out of lack respect for thee , but on the one hand , whether I have some fear 
34E co AGpvavov, ooS’ axvpa^cov opaq , akk’ psv sv syco sxco Gappa^scoq 

of death or not, is another Logos/matter , thus on the other hand , for the sake of my reputation 
rcpoq Gavaxov p pp , a kkoq koyoq , oov 8’ npoq Kav spov So£,av 

and thine and that of the whole city , 1 think it is not fair for me to do any of these things and 
Kav opvv Kav xp o^p 7ro?csv Soksv svvav oo Ka^ov pov tvovsvv ooSsv xooxcov Kav 
in view of my age and this reputation of mine , whether true or false ; 
sxovxa ovxa xpJaKovSs Kav xooxo xoovopa sps , svx’a^pGsq oov svx’vimoSoq oov : 

35A then since the opinion prevails that Socrates is in some way different than most humans . 

oov akk" SsSoypsvov ys xco IcoKpaxsv saxv xvvv Svai))spsvv xcov rtokkcov avGpconcov . 

If then those of thee who are supposed to be different either in wisdom or in courage or in any 
sv oov ov opcov SoKoovxsq Svaijvspsvv svxs aoi))va svxs avSpsva svxs pxvvvoov 


other Virtue were to behave in such a way , it would be disgraceful ! On the one hand , 
aLLp apsxri saovxav xovouxov, av sir) avaxpov : psv 

I have often seen some men who had some reputation in that situation , but on the other hand , 
syco 7ioLLaKvq scopaica xvvaq svvav xv SoKouvxaq ovoua7xsp , 8s 

when they were on trial, they behave in the strangest way , as if they thought they were going 
oxav Kpvvcovxav , spyaipopsvouq Gaupaava, coq ovopsvouq 7xsv- 
to suffer something terrible , if they were put to death , as if they would be Immortal, if thou 
asaOav xv Ssvvov , sv anoOavoovxav , coansp saopsvcov aOavaxov , upsvq 
would not kill selves . To me such behavior fastens disgrace upon the city , so that any 
av pr| a7XOKxsvvr|xs auxouq : spoi ov Sokoucuv 7ispvaTtxsvv avaxuvpv xp noLsv, coax’ xvva 
stranger might also bring up , that the Athenians who “excel in virtue”, those selves whom 
35B xcov cqsvcov av Kav urcoLaPsvv oxv ov AOpvavcov Svai))spovxsq svq apsxpv , auxov ouq 
selves honor both with offices and other marks of distinction , these very same “selves” are no 
more sauxcov rcpoKpvvouavv xs sv xavq apxavq vcav xavq aLLavq xvpavq , ouxov ouSsv 
more different than women . For such acts , O gentlemen of Athens , we who have any reputation 
Svaijvspouav yuvavKcov . yap xauxa , co avSpsq AOpvavov, ppaq svvav xv xouq SoKouvxaq 
whatsoever , must not commit , and if we would comvnit them , thou must not allow it, 


but this Self you must make clear , that thou will be much more ready to condemn one who 
aXXa xouxo auxo svSsvKvuaOav, oxv tcoLu paLLov Kaxa\|/pi|)vsvaOs xou 

puts before thee such pitiable dravnatic-scenes and makes the city ridiculous , 
svaayovxoq xa xauxa sLssvva Spapaxa Kav 7tovouvxoc; xpv 7to^vv Kaxays^aaxov 
rather than One who maintains their Quietude/Peace/Calm . 
p xou ayovxoq pauxvav. 

24 But apart from public opinion , O gentlemen , neither does it appear to me to be Just 

8 s x®P l ? Tr l^ 5 ® avSpsc;, ou8s Soksv pov svvav Svxavov 

to implore nor to get acquitted by begging the judge . Since we should instruct and persuade . 
35C SsvaGav ooSs anoitjsuysvv Ssopsvov xou Svvcaaxou , a'k'ka SvSaaxsvv Kav 7xsv0svv . 
For the judge does not sit in judgment in order to grant favors to them in matters of Justice , 
yap o SvKaaxpq ou KaGpxav xco Kaxaxapv^saOav xouxco stu xa SvKava , 
but to give judgment upon these matters ; and his oath binds him , not to grant favors which 
aAA’ xco Kpvvsvv S7iv xauxa : Kav opcopoKsv oux apvsvaGav ovq 
would accord with the opinion belonging to self, but to judge according to The Laws . 

av SoKp auxco , aLLa SvKaasvv Kara xouq vopouq . 

Accordingly then , neither must we get you into the habit of breaking your oaths , nor must thou 
oukouv ouxs XPT ppovq upaq sGv^svv s7uopKsvv ouG’ upaq 

fall into that habit ; for then neither of us wovdd act piously . Therefore , do not, O gentlemen 
sGv^saGav : yap ouSsxspov ppcov av suasPovsv . ouv pp , co avSpsq 

of Athens , demand of me , that I must act before thee in a way , which I am led to believe to be 
AGpvavov, a£,vouxs ps , Ssvv rcpaxxsvv 7ipoq upaq xovauxa , a pyoupav svvav 
35D neither Beautiful nor Just nor Pious , and especially by God , when impiety is certainly also 
ppxs KaLa ppxs SvKava ppxs oava , xs aAAcoq vp Ava aasPvaq psvxov Kav 
that under which , Meletos here , has brought me to trial. For it is clear , that if I were to mislead 
uno MsLsxou xouxouv, (jvsuyovxa. yap aaijvcoq, sv av 7xsv0ovpv 

and implore thee , and thus compel thee not to keep thine oaths , I would in this way teach thee , 
Kav xco SsvaGav upaq Pvadpnppv (pp) opopoKoxaq , av SvSaaKovpv upaq 

not to be led to believe in the existence of The Gods , and wovdd make my defense unskillfully , 
35E pp pysvaGav svvav Gsouq , Kav av anoLoyoupsvoq axs%vcoq 


and thus accuse myself , that I do not believe in Gods . But that is far from the way that it needs 
Kaxqyopovqv spauxou , ©q ou vopv^© 0souq. a'kha ttoJAou oux©q Ssi 
to be . For I do indeed believe , O gentlemen of Athens , but yet not one of my accusers does , 
e/evv : yap xe vopv^© , © avSpsq A0qvavoi, kou ©q ouSsvq x©v sp©v Kaxqyop©v , 
and so , I turn my case over to thee and to God to judge as to what is Best for me and for thee . 
kou 87uxps7T:© upvv kou x© 0s© Kpivou 7Tspi spou ovxq ps?Asv swou apvaxa spov XS KOU upw. 

Socrates is found guilty of the charges 220 to 281 

25 That on the one hand , I am not discontented , O gentlemen of Athens , at this 

To psv pq ayavaKxsvv, © avSpsq A0qvavov, xoux© 

vote of condemnation that thou have cast against me ; since many reasons lent a hand to me , 

36A x© Kaxs\|/rn))vaaa0s oxv ysyovoxi stu poo , xs 7ioAAa a'k'ka £,upPa?Asxav poi, 
among them , the fact that this decision was not a surprise to me , but 1 am much more surprised 
kou xo ysyovoq xooxo ysyovsv ouk avs^7uaxov poi, a'kXa noXv pa?Aov 0aupa£pD 

by the number of votes generated on either side . For I at least did not expect such a small 
xov api0pov x©v \|/rn))©v ysyovoxa SKaxsp©v.yap sy©ys oo sasa0ai oox© mp’oAuyov 
majority , but a much larger one . But now , on the other hand , as it appears , if only thirty votes 
©opr|v aAAot mpa noXv : vov 8s , ©q soiksv , si povai xpiaKovxa x©v \|/qi|)©v 

had been cast the other way , I woidd have been acquitted . Thus , on the one hand , as it appears 
psx87xsaov av a7xo7r8i|)8oyq . oov psv ©q Sok© 

to me , concerning Meletos , I have even now been acquitted ; and not merely acquitted , 
spoi, MsM|xoo , kou vov anone^soya, kou oo povov a7io7xsi))soya, 

36B but this is indeed clear to all, that, if Anytos and Lycon had not come forward to accuse me, 
a?Aa xooxo ys Sq^ov navri , oxi , si Avuxoq kou Aok©v pq avsPq Kaxqyopqaovxsq spoo , 
then he would have been fined a thousand drachmas , for not receiving the fifth part of the votes . 
Kav ©tpAe Spaxpaq, oo psxoAaP©v xo 7xep7rxov pepoq x©v q/q())©v . 

26 But on the other hand , the man thus proposes the penalty of death for me . 

8’ o avqp oov Tipaxai 0avaxoo poi. 

Well then ; what then shall 1 propose to thee as a real alternative , O gentlemen of Athens ? 

818 V : xvvoq Se sy© opvv Sq avxvxvpqaopai, © avSpsq A0qvavoi, 

Clearly that which 1 deserve ? What else ? What do 1 deserve to endure or to pay , because in my 
Sq^ov oxv q xqq aipaq ; xi oov ; xv eipv a£,ioq 7ra0svv q ooroxvaou , o xv ev x© pa0©v 
life I did not keep quiet, but neglecting what the many care for - money-making and property , 
Pv© oox qyov qaoxiav, oXh’ aps^qcraq ©vnep ov 7io>Aov, xpqpocxvapoo xe Kav oiKovopvaq 
and military offices and public offices and the other offices and political parties and stations that 
Kav axpaxqyv©v Kav 8qpqyopv©v Kav x©v a?A©v apx©v Kav ^ov©poav©v Kav axaae©v 
arise in the city , being led to believe that myself was truly more reasonable than to be engaged 
x©v yiyvopevrov sv xq no^sv, qyqaapsvoq spaoxov x© ovxv 87U8VK8Gxepov q eivav vovxa 
in them in order to be Saved , on the one hand , I Refrained from taking part in those activities , 
36C evq xaox’ ©axe G©^ea0av, psv qa ook eM)©v svxao0a , 

in which I would have been of no Use to thee nor myself, but on the other hand , devoted myself 
ov epe?Aov evvav pqSev oijve^oq pqxe opiv pqxs spaoxoo , 8s v©v 

to conferring upon each citizen , individually , what I regard as , The Greatest Benefit ; 
xo eoepyexeiv 87u eKaaxov vSva , sy© (pqpi ©q , xqv psyvaxqv sospysavav , 
trying to persuade each of thee to care rather for Thyself, as to how one could be most Good 
svxvxsvp©v 7TSi0siv SKaGXOV up©v npiv 87ups^q0svq sauxou , ©q 07X©q saovxo PsAcvaxoq 
and most Sound-Minded , rather than to care for any of those that belong to thyself, 

Kav (|)povvp©xaxoq , npoxspov pq S7ups^sva0av pqxs pqSsvoq x©v sauxou , 


and rather to care for The Self of The City , rather than those things that belong to the city , 

7tpw xpq aoxpq no'kscoq rcpiv ppxs xcov xpq no’hscoc,, 

and to follow the same way in thine care for others . Therefore , being such a man as I am , 
xs Kaxa ooxco xov aoxov xporcov s7upsLsvG0av xeov aLLcov : oov cov xovooxoq svpv 
what do 1 deserve to endure ? Something Good , O Athenian gentle men , if I must indeed 
36D xv a£,voq rcaOsvv ; xv ayaOov, eo A0pvavov avSpsq, ev Ssv ys 
propose something that accords with that which I in Truth deserve ; and this Good , should be 
xvpaa0av Kaxa xpv xp aLp0sva a^vav : Kav xaoxa aya0ov av 

something such as is indeed fitting/proper for me . What then , is fitting for a poor man 
o xi xoiooxov ys Tcpsnoi spov. xv oov Ttps7xsv nsvpxv avSpv 
who is thine benefactor , who needs leisure to carry on thine encouragement ? There is nothing , 
sospysxp , Ssopsvco ayoLpv aysvv era xp opsxspa TCapaKsLsuGsv; sg0’ ook , 

O Athenian gentlemen , more proper than that such a man be kept thus at the expense of the city 
co A0pvavov avSpsq, o xv paLLov Ttpsnsv, coq xov xovooxov avSpa ooxcoq avxsva0av 
in the Prytaneion ,which is indeed much more appropriate for me , than if any of thyselves 
sv npoxavsvco, p ys paLLov 710 L 0 p sv xvq opcov 

had won a race at the Olympic games with either a yoked-pair or double-pair of horses . 
vsvvKpKsv 0Lup7uaavv p (^soysv p 2;uvcopvSv vtxtcco . 

(The Prytaneion or town-hall, consecrated to Hestia , to whom a perpetual fire was kept burning 
in it, which their Colonies brought from the Prytaneion of the mother-city . At Athens , the 
Prytanes had their meals there , and there , they entertained foreign ambassadors , and also 
citizens of high merit and the children of those who had fallen in battle . L/S Lexicon) 

For on the one hand , he makes thee seem to be Blessed/Happy/Spiritually-well-off, 

yap psv o 7vov£v opaq Soksw svvav soSavpovac; (so-Good,Savpov-Spirit) Sym205,Rep354), 

whereas on the other hand , I make thee to Be Blessed (Successful , Prosperous , Fortunate) ; 

36E 8s syco svvav 

and on the one hand , he is not at all in need of support, whereas , 1 am in need . 

Kav psv o ooSsv Ssvxav xpovjvpcg 8s syco Ssopav. 

So if I must propose a judgment in accordance with that which 1 deserve , 
oov sv Ssv xvpaa0av xo SvKavov Kaxa ps xpq a£,vac;, 

this 1 propose ; public maintenance in the Prytaneion . 

37A xooxoo xvpcopav, avxpSscoc; sv 7vpoxavsvco . 

Perhaps then by saying this , I vnay appear to thyselves to be doing just like I also said 
27 Iacoq oov Lsycov xaoxv Sokco opvv coansp mpa7xLpavcoc; Kav Lsysvv 

about seeking pity and supplication ; by speaking out boldly . But that is not the case , 

7xspv xoo ovkxoo Kav xpq avxvpoLpascoq , anaoOaSv^opsvoc; : 8s xo saxvv ook xovooxov , 

O Athenians , but much rather as follows . I am convinced that I was never intentionally unjust 
co A0pvavov, aAAa paAAov xovovSs . syco nsnsvapav svvav ppSsva skcov aSucsvv 
to any human being ; but 1 will not convince thee by saying this , for we have such a short time 
av0pco7vcov, aAAa 00 7vsv0co upaq xooxo : yap oLvyov ypovov 

to deliberate with each other . Since then , as I know , that if we had a Law just as other humans , 
8vsvLsyps0a aLLpLovq : snsv ,coc; sycopav, sv opvv pv vopoq , coansp Kav aLLovq av0pco7xovc;, 
that cases concerning the death penalty , shovdd not be decided upon in only one day , but many , 
37B 7xspv 0avaxoo pp Kpvvsvv povov pvav ppspav , aLLa noLL aq , 

then thou would have been persuaded . But now it has not been easy to dissolve many/great 
av srcsvG0px£ : 8’ vov 00 paSvov arcoLosa0av psyaLaq 

slanders in so short a time . Surely then being Self convinced that I am unjust to no-one , 
SvaPoLaq sv oLvyco ypovco . Sp aoxoq nsnsvapsyot; syco aSvKsvv ppSsva 


why indeed should 1 be unjust to myself and to say of myself, that I am worthy of anything bad , 
ye Ss© vtoLLoo aSvKpasvv spaoxov Kav spsvv Kax’ spaoxoo , ©q svpv alpoq xoo koikoo 
and to propose any penalty of that sort for myself. Why should I ? So that I may not suffer this , 
kou xvppasa0av xvvoq xovooxoo spaox©. xv Ssvaaq; p pp m0© xooxo 
that Meletos proposes for me , about which , I say , that I do not know whether it is good or evil ? 
oo MsLpxoq xvpaxai poi, o (Jvppv ook siSsvav sv saxvv oox’ aya0ov sv oox’ KaKov ; 
Instead of that, must I then choose that which I know well as being bad , and propose that ? 
avxv xooxo Sp sL©pav cov ov8’ eo oxv ovxcov kovkcov , xvppaapsvoq xoo ; 

37C Shall it be prison ? Why must I live in prison , a slave to those in charge for the time being ? 
noxspov Ssapoo; kou xv Ssv ps dqpv sv Ssaproxppuo, SooLsoovxa xp Ka0vaxapsvp apxp asv; 
Or shall I propose a fine , and imprisonment, until it should be paid ? But that is the same to me 
aXXa xpppocxcov , kou 5s5sa0av , s©q av skxvg© ; aAAa saxvv xaoxov pov 
as what I said just now , for I have no money to pay . Shall I then propose exile ? 

07tsp sLsyov Sp vov: yap pov saxv oo xpppootoc, skxvgco O7to0sv . aLLa Sp xvpparopav (jvoypcg; 
For perhaps thou would propose that for me. Then I would certainly have to be very fond of life . 
yap va©q av xvppaavxs xooxoo pov. ps av psvx’ sxov 7io/Ap i|)vLov|/oxva , 
Could I be so irrational, as not to be able reason , that if thou , on the one hand , who are my 
sv svpv oox©q aLoyvaxoq, cogxs pp 5ovaa0av Loyv££G0av, oxv opsvq psv ovxsq poo 
fellow citizens could not endure experiencing my Habits and my Logos , but thou found Them 
noLvxav ovov oox svsyKsvv sysvsa0s rag spaq Svaxpvpaq Kav xooq Loyooq, aAA’ opvv ysy- 
37D burdensome and hateful, so that thou are now seeking to be rid of Selves , but on the other 
-ovaavv Papoxspav Kav STUijvfiovcoxspav, cogxs vow (^pxsvxs anaLLaypvav aoxcov , Ss 
hand , others then , will easily endure Selves? That is indeed far from the way it is , O Athenians. 

aAAov apa pa5v©q ovgoogv aoxaq ; ys noLLoo Ssv , © A0pvavov. 

What a fine life I it would be for me if I went away , and for a man at my time of life , wandering 
oov KaLoq o Pvoq av svp pov s£,sL0ovxv av0p©n© xpLvK©Ss apsvPopsv© 

from one city to another and living on the run ! For I know well, that wherever I go , the young 
s£, aLLpv nokscog aLLpq Kav i^pv s£,sLaovopsv© . yap ovS’ so oxv, onov av sL0© , ov vsov 
will listen to my talk , just as they do here ; and if I should , on the one hand , drive them away , 
aKpoaaovxav spoo Lsyovxoq , ©arcsp sv0aSs : Kav psv ansXavvco rovrovg , 

selves will themselves persuade their elders to drive me out, but if, on the other hand , I do not 
ooxov 7xsv0ovxsc; aoxov xooq Ttpsapoxspooc; s£,sL©gv sps : sav Ss pp 

37E drive them away , their fathers and relatives will drive me out for their own selves . 
ansLaov© , xoox©v ov naxspsc; xs Kav ovksvov Sv’ xooxooq aoxooq . 

28 Perhaps then , someone might say : 

lG©g oov xvq av s7xov : 

“O Socrates , is it possible for thee not to go away from us but keep silent and lead a quiet life ?” 

© I©Kpaxsq , sgsv ovoq x’ oox ocycov s£,sL0©v opvv Ss avy©v Kav paoxvav ^pv ; 
Surely then this is the hardest of all to convince some of thee . For if on the one hand , 

Sp xooxv sgxv xoAs7T©xaxov navx©v nsvaav xvvaq op©v . yap sav xs 
I say that such conduct makes me be disobedient to The God , and so on the other hand , through 
Lsy© oxv xoox’ saxvv ansvfisvv x© 0s© Kav Sva 

this , it is impossible to keep quiet, thou will not be convinced by me , since thou believes that 
xooxo aSovaxov aysvv paoxvav, oo 7vsvasa0s pov ©q 

I am being dishonest; and if in turn I shovdd also say that this happens to be The Greatest Good 
38A svprovsoopsv© : x’ sav ao Kav Lsy© oxv xooxo xoyxavsv ov psyvaxov aya0©v 

for a human-being ; to bring forth Logos’ about Excellence and other Virtues every day , 

av0p©7i© , 7vovsva0av xooq Loyooc; 7xspv apsxpq Kav x©v aAA©v sKaaxpq ppspaq , 


about which thou hears me discussing and examining myself and others , since 
nspv Gov upsiq aKousxs spou Svaksyopsvoo Kai s£,sxa C,ovxoq spauxov Kai akkouc; , 8e 
the unexamined life is not worth living for a human-being , and therefore by saying this , 
o avs£,sxaaxoc; |3ioc; oo Picoxoq avGpconco , 8’ ksyovxi xaoxa 

thou will believe me , even less . Yet on the one hand , these issues have to be so , O gentlemen , 
nsiasaGs poi sxi r|xxov. 8s psv xa e/ev ooxcoc;, co avSpsq , 

just as 1 say , on the other hand , it is not easy to convince thee . And , at the same time , I have 
coc; syeo (prijar, Ss oo paSiov tcsiGsiv. Kav apa syeo 

never in any way been accustomed to think that 1 deserve anything bad . For if, on the one hand , 
ook ooSsvoc; siGiapai epaoxov a^voov KaKou. yap sv pev 

1 had money , I would have proposed a fine , as large as 1 could pay ; for that would be in no way 
poi pv xpppovxa , av sxippaappv xpppaxcov oaa spskkov skxvctsw : yap av ouSsv 
38B harmful. But on the other hand , as it is now , I have no money , unless of course 
spkaPpv : Ss saxiv vov poi yap oo sv pp apa 

thou are willing to impose such a fine such as 1 would be able pay . Then 1 might perhaps be able 
PooksaGs xippaai xoaooxoo oaov syeo av Sovaippv sKxiaai. 8’ av lacoc; Sovaippv 

to pay thee a mina of silver ; thus , I propose such a penalty . Flowever , Plato here , O gentlemen 
SKxvaav opvv pvav apyopvoo : oov xvpcopav xoaooxoo . Ss Llkaxcov oSs , co avSpsc; 
of Athens , and Criton and Critobulos and Apollodorus ask me to propose a fine 
AGpvaioi, Kav Kpvxcov Kav KpixoPookoq Kav ArcokkoScopoc; Ksksoooai ps xippaaaGai 
of thirty minas , saying that selves will ensure its payment. Thus 1 propose a fine of that amount, 
xpiaKovxa pvcov , 8’ aoxov syyoaaGav: oov xvpcopai xoaooxoo , 

38C and these men , being sufficiently resourceful, will insure the payment in silver to thee . 

8 s ooxoi a^ioxpsco saovxav xoo apyopioo opvv. 

The court votes : Death to Socrates ! 

29 For which it is indeed not a long time thou had to wait, O gentlemen of Athens , 

svsKa y’ Oo rcokkoo xpovoo s£,sxs, co avSpsc; AGpvaioi, 

and for those who wish to rebuke the city under the name and blame , of having killed Socrates , 
xcov Pookopsvcov koiSopsvv xpv 7xokvv otco ovopa Kav avxvav , coc; ansKxovaxs Xancpaxp , 
a wise man ; for , certainly , those who wish to revile thee will say I am wise , even though , 
aoi))ov avSpa : yap Sp ov Pookopsvoi ovsiSi^siv opvv ijipaooai ps svvav aoi))ov , si Kai 
I am not. Thus if thou had waited a little while longer, this that you chose , would have come to 
svpv pp . oov sv nspispsivaxs xP ovov okvyov, xooxo av sysvsxo 

thee , of its own accord ; for thou certainly sees how old , how far advanced in life and that 1 am 
opvv , ano xoo aoxopaxoo : yap Sp opaxs xpv pkiKiav , noppco pSp xoo Pioo 8s oxv saxv 
38D near Death . But this 1 say , not to all of thee , but to those that voted to condemn 
syyoq Gavaxoo .8s xooxo ksyco oo repot; navxaq opaq ,akka repot; xooc; Kaxa\|/pi|)vaapsvooc; 
me to Death . Furthermore , to those selves , 1 also have the following Logos to say . Perhaps 
spoo Gavaxov . 8s npoc; root; xooxoot; aoxoot; Kav xoSs ksyco . vacot; 

thou thinks of me , O gentlemen , that I have been convicted through lack of such Logos , which 
ovsaGs ps , co avSpst; , sakcoKsvai anopva xoiooxcov Loycov , ovc; 

would have moved thee to let me go , if I had thought it necessary to do and say everything , so as 
av snsvaa upac; , sv coppv Ssvv rcovsvv Kav ksysvv anavxa , coaxs 

to gain an acquittal. This is far from the way it is indeed . For on the one hand , I have indeed not 
xpv SiKpv a7io(|)uysiv. rcokkou Ssi ys . akk’ psv psvxoi oo 

been convicted through a lack of Logos , but through a lack of recklessness and shamelessness , 
sakcoKa anopia koycov , akka xokppc; Kav avavaxovxiac; 


and of a willingness to say to thee such things , which thou would have liked best to hear ; 
kou too sGsJisiv ^sysiv Ttpoq opaq xoiaoxa , oi opiv av r)v pSiaxa aKoosiv , 
such as my weeping and wailing and doing and saying many other things which are also , 
xs poo Gppvoovxoc; kou oSopopsvoo kou 7 tovoovxac; kou ^syovxoc; 7ioAAa a^a Kai , 

38E as I maintain , unworthy of myself; yet surely such as thou are used to hear from others . 

©q syoo i|)ppi, ava£,ia spoo : kou Sr| oia opsiq siGiaGs aKoosiv x©v aAA©v . 

But neither did 1 at that time think that I must do anything -on account of the danger I was in- 
aXX’ ooxs xoxs ©pGpv Ssiv npa^av ooSsv svskoi xoo KivSovoo 

illiberal of mind , nor do 1 now repent of having made my defense as 1 did , but I much rather 
avsJisoOspov , ooxs vov psxaps^si pm ano^oypGapsv© ooxooq , akXa noX o pa^ov 
prefer to die following such a defense , than to live after a defense of that other sort. For neither 
oupoopou xsGvavai ©Ss xooxo a7iokoypcrapsvoc; p i^pv sksivwc; . yap ooxs 

39A in a law-court, nor in battle should I nor any other person , plan to escape death by 
sv 8 ikt| oot’ sv rco^spco sps oox’ooSsva aX'hov ppyavaaGai ano())so£,sxav Gavaxov on©:; 
every possible means . And since during battle it often becomes clear, that someone might indeed 
nav Ssi tcoudv . Kai yap sv xau; payaiq yiyvsxai no^aKic; Sp^ov , oxi xiq av ys 
avoid death by flinging his shield and by begging for mercy from his pursuers ; and 
xo SK(|)uym a7io9avsiv Kai ai|)siq on^a Kai si))’ xpa7xopsvoq iKsxsiav xoov Si©kovt©v : Kai 
there are many other deviant ways in every danger for escaping death , if, one 
siaiv noAAai aAAai ppyavai sv SKaaxou; KivSovou;, ©axs 8iai|)soysiv Gavaxov , sav xiq 
dares do and say anything . But this is not hard , O gentlemen , to escape death ; in so far as it is 
xo^pa 7ioisiv Kai ^sysiv nav. aXXa xoox’oo ya^snov, co avSpsc;, SKi|)oysiv Gavaxov, p 
39B much harder to escape vice , for that runs faster than death . And now , on the one hand , 
aXXa noX o ya^sncoxspov novppiav : yap Gsi Gaxxov Gavaxoo . Kai vov psv 
since I am slow and old , I am caught by the slower runner , but on the other hand , my accusers , 
axs syoo ©v PpaSoq Kai npsaPoxpi; sa^cov ono xoo PpaSoxspoo , 8s spoi oi Kaxpyopoi 
who are terribly clever and sharp are caught by the faster , viciousness . And now I, on the one 
axs ovxsc; Ssivoi Kai o£,su; ono xoo Gaxxovoi; , xpq KaKiaq . Kai vov syoo psv 
hand , shall go away , liable to thee under the sentence of death , but they , on the other hand , 
ansipi oi()?uov opcov otj)’ Sucpv Gavaxoo , ooxoi 8’ 

go away liable under The Truth , of depravity and injustice . And I at least abide by my penalty , 
ecxt^pKoxsc; ono xpq akpGsiaq poyGppiav Kai aSiKiav . Kai syeoys sppsvco xco xipppaxi 
and they by theirs . 1 suspect that perhaps these selves also had to be in such a way , 

Kai ooxoi . 7ioo psv lacoq xaoxa Kai sSsi aysiv ooxcoq , 
and I think Selves must exist in a Measured Way . 

Kai oipai aoxa s/siv psxpicoc; . 

30 Surely then after this I wish to prophesy to thee , O accusers of mine ; and since I am 
39C Sp 8s psxa xooxo srciGop© yppapcoSpaai opiv, © Kaxai|/pi|)iaapsvoi poo: Kai yap sipi 
already at the time , in which human-beings most prophesy ; when they are about to die . 
pSp svxaoGa , sv © av9p©7ioi paMaxa xppap©8ooaiv, oxav psAAroaiv a7xoGavsia9ai. 

For I say to thee , O gentlemen , who have slain me , that punishment will come upon thee 
yap (pppi , © avSpsq , oi a7XSKxovaxs sps, xipropiav p£,siv opiv 
immediately after my death , far more difficult, by Zeus , than the punishment of death which 
soGoq psxa spov xov Gavaxov 7ioko xa^snroxspav vp Aia p oiav 

thou have measured out to me . But now , thou has done this , because thou imagined that 
ansKxovaxs sps: yap vov sipyaaGs xooxo oiopsvoi 

thou would be liberated from rendering an account of your lives . Flowever , the very opposite , 
anaXXa^saQai xoo SiSovai s^syxov xoo pioo, 8s xo noXv svavxiov 


39D as I predict, will happen to thee . Those who will make thee give an account will be plenty ; 

©q sy© i))ppv, anoPpasxav opvv . ov s^sy- opaq -yovxsq saovxav 7vAsvooq , 

those whom I have restrained until now , though you knew it not; and they will be tougher , 
ooq Kaxsiyov vov , Ss opsvq paGavsaGs ouk : Kav saovxav /a^sraoxspov 

since they are younger , and thou will be more annoyed . For if thou imagined that by putting 
oa© svavv vscoxspov, Kav opsvq paMiov ayavaKxpasxs . yap sv ovsaGs arco- 
people to death thou will prevent anyone from reproaching thee , because thou does not live 
av0p©7rooq -Kxsvvovxsqs7uaxpasvv xvva xoo ovsvSv^svv opvv , oxv ook <^pxs 
uprightly , thou are mistaken . For that self deliverance is not in any way possible nor good , 
opG©q SvavosvaGs : yap p aoxp awakkayp saG’ ooxs mvo Sovaxp ooxs Ka^p , 
but that most beautiful and easy deliverance , is not by suppressing others , but 
aXX’ sKsvvp Kav KaAAvaxp Kav paaxp , pp ko^oosvv xooq a^ooq , aXX’ 

39E by readily offering-up thyselves to be made as good as possible . Thus on the one hand 
mpaaKsoa^svv saoxov saxav ©q Ps?avaxoq oraoq . oov psv 
with these prophecies to thee who voted for my condemnation , I take my leave . 
xaoxa pavxsoaapsvoq opvv xovq Kaxa\|/pi|)vaapsvoq anoAAaxxopav . 

31 On the other hand , to those who voted for my acquittal, I would like to converse about this 
8 s Tovq anov|/p(|)vaapsvoq av pSs©q Sva^syGsvpv unsp xooxoov 

business which has come to pass , while the magistrates make arrangements and I await to go 
rcpaypaxoq xoo ysyovoxoq , sv © ov apyovxsq ayooav aayo^vav Kav ootc© spyopav 
to the place where I must die . Thus remain with me at this time , O gentlemen , for nothing 
ov s^Govxa ps Ssv xsGvavav. aAAa napapswaxs pov xoaooxov ypovov , © avSpsq , ooSsv 
40A prevents our story-telling with each other, as long as there is time . For by being Friends , 
k©^usv SvapoGo^oypaav 7vpoq a)Wp^ooq , s©q s^saxvv . yap ©q ooavv (jn^ovq 
1 wish to show thee the real meaning of what has happened to me now . For , O my gentlemen 
sBs'kco S7iv8sv^av opvv xo vosv noxs xv ^opPsPpKoq pov vow . yap , © spov avSpsq 
judges - for by calling thee judges I have named thee correctly - something wonderful has come 
SvKaaxov - yap Kadrov opaq SvKaaxaq av Ka^ovpv opG©q - xv Gaopaavov ys- 
to pass ! For on the one hand , in times past, my customary Prophetic Spirit , has always 
-yovsv. yap psv sv x© ypov© npoaGsv sv©0ova p pavxvKp xoo Savpovvoo asv 
sagaciously spoke to me quite frequently to oppose me , even in the smallest matters , if 1 was 
xcoKvp pov navv raxvxv svavxvoopsvp navv S7U apvKpovq sv pv 

going to do anything 1 should not; but now on the other hand , just as Selves also See , this , 
psMuOvpv wpalqsvv xv opG©q pp : vow 8s awsp aoxov Kav opaxs , xaoxv 

which is certainly imagined , and may indeed be considered by some , “the extreme of evils” , 
a Sp ovpGsvp Kav av ys svvav vopvi^sxav xvq sayaxa KaK©v 
40B has come upon me . But The Divine Sign did not opposed me when I left my home 

2,opPsPpKs pov . 8s xoo Gsoo xo appsvov ooxs pvavxv©0p spov s^vovxv ovkoGsv 
in the morning , nor at the time when I came here to court, nor at any point during my Logos , 
s©0sv , ooxs pvvKa avsPavov svxaoGov srtv xo SvKaaxppvov , ooxs ooSapoo sv x© >ooy© 
when I was about to say anything ; and yet during other Logos it certainly stopped me many times 
ps^ovxv spsvv xv : Kavxov sv a^ovq ^oyovq Sp sn says TCoAAayoo 

in the middle of a speech ; but now in regards to this affair , it has not opposed me in any way 
psxa£,o ^syovxa : 8s vov nspv xaoxpv xpv npa^vv oox’ pvavxv©xav pov ooSapoo 
in anything 1 did nor in anything 1 said . What then do 1 understand is the Cause ? I will tell thee . 
sv ooSsw spy© oox’ sv ^oy© . xv oov ono^apPav© svvav avxvov ; sy© sp© opvv : 
For I dare say , that this that has happened to me , has come to be Good , and those of thee 
yap kvvSovsosv xooxo xo IqopPsPpKoq pov ysyovsvav ayaGov , Kav oaov ppsvq 


40C who imagine that Death is bad , do not in any way correctly grasp the way it does exist. 
ovops0a to xsOvavai svvav koikov , ouk otc©<; op0©q urco^apPavopsv sg0’. 

A Great Sign of this has come to pass for me ; for woidd not my customary sign present itself 
psya TSKpppvov toutou ysyovsv pov : yap av ouk to sv©0oq Gppsvov sg0’ 

in some way to oppose me , if I was not going to bring forth Something Good ? 
otcxdc; ouk pvavu©0p pov, si syco pp sps?Aov TCpa£,svv tv aya0ov . 

32 But let us consider it in this way also , by how much hope there is that Self is Good . 

8s Evvopacopsv rp8s Kav, ©q TCOAAp satcvc; svvav auro sgtvv aya0ov . 

For Death is one of two states/conditions : for either It is nothingness , such as that the dead 
yap to TS0vavai sgtvv 0aTspov Suovv : yap p svvav pp8sv ovov tov TS0vs©Ta 

possess not any perception of anything , or it happens to be according to the way some say it is ; 
s%svv ppSs psSspvav ava0pavv ppSsvoq , p Tuy/avsv ouaa ra Kara tvc; ^syopsva 
a Transformation and a Transmigration of the Soul from this place to another place . 

psraPo^p Kav psrovKpavc; rp yu/p too sv0sv8s tou totcou svq aTTov totcov . 
40D And if it is a perception of nothing , but like a sleep , in which the sleeper does not even see 
Kav svts sgtvv avG0pGvq ppSspva, aAA’ ovov vnvoq , S7rsv8av tvc; Ka0suS©v pp8sv pp8’ opa 
a dream , then death would be a wonderful gain . For I suspect, that if anyone had to select 
ovap , o Bavaxoq av svp 0aupaavov KspSoq . yap sy© av ovpav, sv rvva 8sov SK^s£,apsvov 
that same night, in which they slept in this way , when they saw not one dream , and by com- 
raurpv rpv vuKra , sv p KarsSap0sv out© , ©crcs v8svv ppSs ovap , Kav avTV- 
-paring that night with other nights and days of their life , 

-7vapa0svra raurp rp vuktv xaq aTTaq vuKTaq ts Kav ppspaq tou sauTou xaq tou Pvou 
then after due consideration said , how many days and nights in their life had passed more better 
Ssov GKs\|/apsvov svtcsvv , noaaq ppspaq Kav vuKrac; sv t© saurou Pv© PsPv©ksv apsvvov 
and more pleasantly than that same night, I would suspect that not only any private person , but 
Kav pSvov raurpc; rpc; vuktoc; , av ovpav otv pp rvva v8v©rpv , ak.Ta 
40E even the great King Self would discover that those days and nights in comparison with other 
tov psyav Paav^sa aurov av supsvv raurac; ppspaq Kav vuKraq 7vpoq rac; alXaq 
days and nights , would be few . Therefore if such is the nature of Death , I at least, say It is a 
suapvdpprouc;. ouv sv tovoutov sgtvv o 0avaToc;, sy©ys ^sy© 
gain ; for in that case , all Time would surely appear to be in this way ; no longer than one night. 
KspSoq : yap Kav naq o xpovoq 8p 8p (jvavvsrav svvav out© ou8sv 7iAsv©v p pva vuc;. 
But if on the other hand , Death is in turn , like a Journey abroad , from here to That other place , 
8’ sv o 0avarot; sgtvv au , ovov arcoSpppGav sv0svSs svq aTTov totcov , 
41A and if what we are Told is True ; that all the dead exist There , then what Greater Good 
Kav xa ^syopsva sgtvv a^p0p , ©q anavxsq ov ts0vs©ts<; svgvv sksv , apa tv psvi^ov aya0ov 
could there be , O gentlemen judges ? For if a Soul arrives in Flades , after being Liberated from 
av svp , © avSpsq SvKaarav ; yap sv rvq a^vKopsvoq svq AvSou , arcaTTaysiq tout©v 
those who pretend to be judges , shall find those who are Truly judges , and Where they are said 
t©v <()aGKovT©v svvav SvKaGT©v , suppGSV rouq aiG|0©q SvKaGraq , Kav ovtcsp ^syovrav 
to sit in judgment in That place , Minos and Rhadamanthus , and Aiacos and Triptolemos , and 
SvKai^svv sksv , Mvv©q ts Kav Pa8apav0uq Kav AvaKoq Kav TpvTCTO^spoq Kav 

those others that became Half-Gods by having been Just in the life of Selves ; Then would such 
ogov a?Aov T©vsysvsro ppv0s©v SvKavov sv t© Pv© saur©v , apa av p 

a Journey be a petty affair ? Or in turn, what Value would any of thee place upon meeting with 
aTCoSppva svp (Jvau^p ; p au rvq av tcog© av up©v Ss^avr’ stcv 2,uyysvsa0av 
Ovpheus and Musaeus and Hesiod and Homer ? / for one, am willing to Die many times over, 

Opijvsv Kav Mouaav© Kav HgvoS© Kav Oppp© ; sy© yap psv 0s^© rs0vavav TCO^aKvq , 


if these Logos are True ; since my Very Self would find the way life in That place wonderful, 
si xaux’ saxiv aLpOp : S7xsi spoiys auxeo av sip p SiaxpiPp auxoGi Gaupaaxp , 
41B if ever I should meet Palamedes or Aias the son of Telamon , or if I should meet any 
7X07X0X8 svxu/oipi ITaLappSsi Kai Aiavxi xeo TsLapeovoq kou ei xiq 

other braves of old who died through an unjust judgment, comparing my life experience with 
a LLoq 7 xaLaieov xsGvpKsv 8ia aSiKov Kpiaiv , avxi7xapaPaLLovxi spauxou xa 7xa9p 7xpoq 
theirs ; that way of life , as I suspect, would not be unpleasant . And surely then , The Greatest 
xa SKsivcov , cue, syeo oipai, av ouk eip apSpq . Kai Sp xo psyiaxov 

Pleasure would be to pass time in examining and investigating those There , just as 1 do those 
Siayeiv s£,sxa^ovxa Kai spsuvoovxa xouq 8K8i coa7xsp xouq 
here , to find out who among them is wise and who thinks he is wise , but is not. What Value 
svxauGa , xiq auxcov saxiv ao^oc; Kai xiq oiexai psv , 8’ saxiv ou . xiq 7xoaco 
would anyone place then , O gentlemen judges , to be able to examine him who led the great 
av xiq Ss^aixo S7xi 8’ , eo avSpsq 8iKaaxai, s£,sxaaai xov ayayovxa xpv 7xoLLpv 
41C army against Troy , or Odysseus , or Sisyphus , or countless others , both men and women , 
axpaxiav S7xi Tpoiav p OSuaasa p Siauc|)ov p pupiouq aLLouq Kai avSpaq Kai yuvaucaq 
whom I might mention ? To converse and associate and examine along with them , would be 
av si7xoi ; SiaLsysaOai Kai ^uvsivai Kai s£,sxa(^siv oip sksi , av eip 

Immeasurably Valuable Happiness . If indeed what we are Told is True , then without a doubt 
appxavov suSaipoviaq . si7xep ys xa Lsyopsva eaxiv aLpGp Sp7xou 

those beings There do not in any way kill each other for the sake of This ; for those There 
oi sksi ou 7xavxeoc; a7XOKxeivouai sveKa xouxou : yap oi 8K8i 
are indeed already Immortal (Exempt from Death) for the remainder of Time , besides being 
sigiv ys pSp aGavaxoi xov Loi7xov xpovov xe Kai etatv 

More-Blessed/Happy/Fortunate/Spiritually-Well-Off in other respects than those here . 

suSaipovsaxspoi xa aLLa xeov evGaSe. 

33 But thou , O gentlemen judges , must also regard Death to be of Good-hope and must 

ALLa upaq , eo avSpsq 8iKaaxai, %pp Kai 7xpoq xov Gavaxov sivai sueLixiSac; , Kai 
4ID bear in mind this single Truth ; that nothing bad can happen to a good man neither in life 
sv SiavoeiaGai xouxo xi aLpGpc; , oxi ooSsv KaKov eaxiv ayaGco avSpi ook ooxe ipovxi 
nor in Death , nor will their affairs of life and of Death be neglected by The Gods . Nor has 
ouxs xsLsuxpaavxi, ooSe xa ixpaypaxa xouxou apsLsixai u7xo Geeov . ou8s 
this present affair of mine come to be accidentally , but this is clear to me , that it was Better 
xa vuv spa ysyovev ano xou auxopaxou , aLLa xouxo eaxi SpLov poi, oxi pv |3sLxiov 
for me to Die now and be Liberated from troubles . By Reason of this , The Sign never interfered 
poi xeGvavai pSp Kai a7xpAAa/Gai 7xpaypaxcov.Sia xouxo xo appsiov ouSapou a7xexpe\|/ev 
with me, and I at least am not in the least bit perturbed with those who condemned me or with my 
Kai eps, Kai eyeoye ou 7xavu xaXsnaivco roiq Kaxa\|/pi|)iaap8voic; Kai pou 
accusers . And yet it was not with that understanding that they condemned and accused me , 
xoiq Kaxpyopou;. Kaixoi ou xauxp xp Siavoia Kax8\|/pi|)i^ovxo Kai Kaxpyopouv pou , 

4IE but because they imagined they could harm me . For this selves deserve to be censured . 

a W oiopsvoi pLa7xxeiv : xouxo aoxoiq a^iov pepiJieaGai 

However , the following injunction I set upon selves : When my sons grow up , come to their aid , 
pevxoi xoaovSe Seopai auxcov : 87xeiSav pou xouq uisiq pPpacoai, xipcoppaaaGs , 

O gentlemen , by annoying them with these matters just as I have annoyed thee with them ; 

co avSpeq, Lu7xouvxeq xauxa a7xep syeo sLu7xouv upaq xauxa, 

if they should appear to thee to care either for money or anything else , more than they care 
sav Kai Sokcogiv upiv s7xipsLsia9ai p xpppaxcov p xou aXkov ixpoxepov p 


for Virtue/Excellence , and if they should think they amount to something when they do not, 
apsisc; , kou sav Sokcogi swai u ovist; ppSsv, 

reprimand selves , just as I have reprimanded thee , since they do not care for what they should , 
ovsiSi^sis aoxovc;, eoansp syco upw , oxv ouk s7ups^ooviai cov Ssi , 

and imagine they amount to something when they are worth nothing . 
kou orovTou swou u ovisc; a^voi ouSsvoc;. 

42 A And if thou does this , both I Self and my sons shall have received Just treatment 
kou sav 7toipis xaoxa , is syeo auioc; Kai ov msic; sGopai SiKaia tcstcovOooc; 
from thee . But for now , the hour has come to go forth . 
uij)’ upw . aMux yap pSp copa a7usvai 

myself on the one hand , go to Die , but thyself on the other hand , to live ; 

spot psv a7io0avoopsvco, upw 8s puoGopsvoic;: 

but which of us goes to The Better tour of duty/business , is unclear to all, 

8 s OTtoTspoi ppcov spyoviav S7U apswov rtpaypa , aSp^ov jcavu 
except than to The God . 

7 T^pV p too 9soo . 

5 October 2005 
Revised 31 December 2019 


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Posted to the NS Archive 6 January 2020